دانلود پایان نامه:بررسی تاثیر رسانه های گروهی بر پیشرفت خواندن و درک مطلب زبان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی در میان دانش آموزان سطح متوسط ایرانی

متن کامل پایان نامه مقطع کارشناسی ارشد رشته :زبان انگلیسی

گرایش : آموزش زبان انگلیسی

عنوان : بررسی تاثیر رسانه های گروهی بر پیشرفت خواندن و درک مطلب زبان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی در میان دانش آموزان سطح متوسط ایرانی 

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

واحد علوم تحقیقات مازندران

پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد آموزش زبان انگلیسی

موضوع

بررسی تاثیر رسانه های گروهی بر پیشرفت خواندن و درک مطلب زبان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجی در میان دانش آموزان سطح متوسط ایرانی

 

استاد راهنما

دکتر امیر مزربان

استاد مشاور

دکتر شعبان بریمانی ورندی

آبان 1392

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Table of Contents

Title page…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. II

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………………………………….. IV

Dedication…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… V

Table of content……………………………………………………………………………………………………. VI

List of tables………………………………………………………………………………………………………… XI

List of figures………………………………………………………………………………………………………. XIII

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2

1.2. Statement of the problem…………………………………………………………………………….. 5

1.3. Significance of the study…………………………………………………………………………….. 6

1.4. Research question……………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

1.5. Research hypothesis……………………………………………………………………………………. 7

1.6. Definition of key terms……………………………………………………………………………….. 8

1.7. Purpose and objective of the study……………………………………………………………… 9

1.8. Limitations and delimitations of the study………………………………………………….. 10

 

 

CHAPTER TWO: Review of the Related Literature

2.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12

2.2. Research related to reading comprehension………………………………………………… 12

2.2.1 Theoreticalbackground of reading comprehension………………………………… 13

2.2.2. Vocabulary acquisition and L2/FL reading comprehension……………………… 14

2.2.3. Empirical studies of reading comprehension……………………………. 14

2.3. Multimedia device………………………………………………………………………………………. 15

  1. 3. 1. Multimedia definition……………………………………………………………………………. 16

2.3.2. Multimedia and education…………………………………………………….. 17

  1. 3. 2.1. Strength of multimedia English teaching……………………………………………… 17
  2. 3. 2. 2.Effect of multimedia on learning…………………………………………………………. 18
  3. 3. 4. Cognitive theory of multimedia learning……………………………………………….. 21

2.3. 4. 1. Extension of the cognitive theory of multimedia learning……………………. 26

  1. 3. 5. Benefits of multimedia for reading comprehension………………………………… 27
  2. 3. 6. A Cognitive theory of multimedia learning implication for design…………. 28
  3. 3. 7. Advance organizers and meaningful learning…………………………………………. 30
  4. 3. 8. Instructional visualizations…………………………………………………………………….. 32
  5. 3. 9. Application of multimedia to language instruction…………………………………. 34
  6. 3. 10. Advantages of learning by multimedia instruction……………………………….. 36
  7. 3. 11. Multimedia aids for text comprehensions…………………………………………….. 36
  8. 3. 12. Krashens affective filter hypotheses…………………………………………………….. 37
  9. 3. 13. Concerns of multimedia English teaching…………………………………………….. 37
  10. 3. 14. Implications of multimedia in language learning and teaching……………… 38
  11. 3. 15 Computer assisted instruction for students……………………………………………. 39
  12. 3. 16. Benefit of CALL for reading comprehension ……………………………………….. 46
  • Vocabulary development software without multimedia components…………….. 47
  • Benefits of multimedia for reading comprehension……………………………………….. 47
  1. 3. 17. The role of prior knowledge in the process of multimedia learning………. 48
  2. 3.18. How we can improve the teaching learning interaction…………………………. 49
  • Dual code and multimedia effects………………………………………………………………….. 49
  • Manageable cognitive load……………………………………………………………………………. 49
  • Segmentation principle………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
  1. 3. 19. Using computers in ESL classroom…………………………………………… 50

2.3.20. Theoretical research about computer-based reading………………………………. 51

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55

3.2. Subjects………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55

3.3. Instrumentation…………………………………………………………………………………………… 57

   3.3.1. Nelson test…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57

   3.3.2. Reading comprehension test………………………………………………………………….. 57

3.4. Data collection……………………………………………………………………………………………. 58

3.5. Materials……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59

3.6. Procedure …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59

3.7. Sampling and population…………………………………………………………………………….. 62

3.8. Design…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62

3.9. Data analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62

 

CHAPTER FOUR: Results & Discussions

4.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64

4.2. Restatement of the Research Question and Hypothesis………………………………………. 64

4.3. Analysis of Scores on Nelson test…………………………………………………………………….. 65

4.4. Homogeneity analysis…………………………………………………………………………………. 65

  1. 5. Piloting: pretest and posttest ………………………………………………………………………….. 76

4.6. Pretest analysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 78

4.7. Posttest analysis………………………………………………………………………………………….. 87

4.8. Analysis of the data related to the Research Hypotheses…………………………………….. 90

4.8. Findings of the data analysis……………………………………………………………………….. 94

4.9. Interpretation of data analysis …………………………………………………………………………. 95

CHAPTER FIVE: Discussion, Conclusion& Pedagogical Implications

5.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………… 96

5.2. Findings and conclusions……………………………………………………………………………. 97

5.3. Implications and applications……………………………………………………………………… 100

  1. Suggestion for further study…………………………………………………………………………. 100

REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 102

APPENDIXES…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 115

APPENDIX 1: NELSON Test……………………………………………………………………………… 116

APPENDIX 2: Reading comprehension test (pre-test and post-test)…………………… 129

APPENDIX 3: pretest and posttest and homogeneity raw scores………………………… 165

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1. Reliability Statistics of Nelson Test…………………………………………………… 65

Table4. 2. Descriptive statistics on NELSON homogeneity test ………………………… 65

Table4.3. descriptive analysis of the homogeneity test………………………………………. 68

Table 4. 4. The frequency of scores of the homogeneity test……………………………… 68

Table 4. 5. Descriptive statistics of homogenous students…………………………………. 69

Table 4. 6. Descriptive Statistics of group 1 and group 2……………………………………. 72

Table 4. 7. Tests of Normality of group 1 and group 2……………………………………….. 75

Table 4.8. The Descriptive Statistics for Groups 1 and 2……………………………………………. 75

Table. 4. 9. Independent Samples Test…………………………………………………………………….. 76

Table 4.10. Reliability Statistics of pretest and posttest for 35 items…………………………… 77

Table4. 11. Reliability Statistics of pretest and posttest for 30 items…………………………… 77

Table 4.12. Descriptive statistics of pretest for experimental and control group……………. 78

Table4.13. test of Normality for pretest…………………………………………………………………… 81

Table4.14.Descriptive statistic of experimental and control group in pretest………………… 86

Table 4.15. Independent Samples t-Test in pretest……………………………………………………. 86

Table4.16. Descriptive statistics of experimental and control group in post-test……………. 87

Table4.17. Tests of Normality for experimental and control group in posttest………………. 90

Table 4.18. Descriptive statistic of control and experimental group in posttest……………… 90

Table4.19. Independent Samples Test in post-test ……………………………………………………. 91

Table4.20. paired samples statistics of post-test andpretest in experimental group………… 92

Table 4.21. T test of the Difference between Pre and Post Tests of experimental group…… 92

Table4.22. paired samples statistics of post-test, pre-test in control group………………………. 93

Table 4.23. Paired Samples Test for control group in pretest and posttest………………………. 93

 

 

List of Figures

Figure 4.1 mean scores of NELSON by group……………………………………………………… 67

Figure 4.2 frequency of scores of homogenous students……………………………………. 70

Figure 4.3 frequency of scores in group 1………………………………………………………….. 73

Figure 4.4. Indicates frequency of scores in group 2…………………………………………. 74

Figure4.5. histogram of experimental group in pretest……………………………………….. 79

Figure4.6histogram of scores for control group in pretest………………………………….. 80

Figure4.7histogram of scores for experimental group in posttest……………………….. 88

Figure 4.8 histogram of scores for control group in posttest………………………………. 89

LIST OF DIAGRAMS

Diagram 4.1. The normal Q-Q Plot of group for recognizing Normality ……………. 71

Diagram .4.2.the normal Q-Q plot of experimental group…………………………………… 82

Diagram 4.3. The normal Q-Q plot of control group…………………………………………… 84

 

 

Abstract:

 

   This study investigates whether multimedia had any effects on reading comprehension improvement among Iranian EFL learners at pre-intermediate level. To this end, the researcher administered a proficiency test (NELSON) to 105 learners from Shokouh institute at pre intermediate level and then according to their scores limited them to 70. The subjects were randomly divided into two homogenous groups. In fact, each group included 35 homogenous students, then as a pretest a reading comprehension test that was made from “tell me more” software was given to the control group and experimental group to see whether they were equal or different. To meet this purpose, during their sessions they read with multimedia text provided with comprehension aids (text, picture, and sounds). The other group received no multimedia training and served as a control group. Both groups received the same materials, and had instruction for thirty –minute periods for ten sessions. To be sure of the effect of the treatment, the researcher tested both groups by using a post-test. The result of pre and post test showed the second groups performed significantly better on the test than the control group. Finally, a T –test was conducted to examine the differences of the mean test score of the two groups. The results of the pre and posttest which served as the statistical basis for the two groups and a t-test comparisons of group means showed a t-value greater than the t- critical. Therefore, the null hypothesis was rejected and we came to this conclusion that multimedia had significant effects on learning reading comprehension among Iranian EFL learners at pre- intermediate level.

Key terms: multimedia, reading comprehension, EFL

Chapter 1

 

Introduction

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Introduction

   Numerous efforts have been made to facilitate the complex process of foreign language reading comprehension. Growing attention has been paid to the use of multimedia for developing reading comprehension skills. The multimedia has become essential in the education of learners of all ages across the world but it has become particularly significant in the reading development of EFL learners. And, how to representation a new language for the first time is very important, and it has effect on achievement of students in learning English.

   In recent years with the growth of media and computer technology, educators have begun to make use of multimedia and technology to improve their teaching including language learning, to improve reading in the modern society, teachers can apply the multimedia technology to assist the reading instruction. New technologies present opportunities to accomplish multiple instructional goals (e.g., integrated language skills, critical thinking, and cooperative skills). They may also be responsive to different learning styles (e.g., auditory, visual, tactile).

The practice of joining multimedia and computer technology into language teaching opens up a new possibility for EFL instructors to improve the overall quality of language instruction. Education experts not only try to find the suitable methods of teaching and learning but also to renovate the learner’s personalities and capabilities and facilitate English language learning and teaching. The goal is to change the education into the human development culture in a desirable way. Therefore there is a need to make fundamental changes in the attitude towards the educational system of the countries, and well-designed teacher preparation programs have a positive effect on reading outcomes. The teacher is a resource that helps students identify their language learning problems and solutions to them, find out the skills they need to focus on, and take responsibility for making choices which determine what and how to learn. The teacher serves as a source of information to the students about how they are progressing in their language learning. Learners are highly motivated when the language training materials they use reflect the content and contexts they are familiar with. Based on the above mentioned, teachers have to set learning goals and then change them into an instructional program with timing of activities. Compared with the traditional English teaching, multimedia is good for arousing students’ reading interest and motivating students to study English. Multimedia assists the teacher to integrate the pictures, music and video into the courseware and make the content more colorful.

In the multimedia-aided reading classroom, the teacher converts the static text into dynamic one. In facilitating L2 reading comprehension, the use of sound, pictures, and animated pictures or video in addition to text have played an important role in vocabulary acquisition and in overall text comprehension, and are unquestioned components of instructional materials for language teaching Chun & Plass, et al. (1996). Instructional materials designed and developed using multimedia have provided exciting possible learning opportunities in information, making their pedagogical effects on learning and teaching. Instructional materials developed using multimedia are believed to be able to facilitate learners’ information processing, and to enhance effective cognitive encoding due to the multiple representations that trigger both verbal and visual modes of processing in human beings.

Computer-based multimedia learning environments which include pictures and words provide an influential situation to improve students’ understanding. (Mayer & Moreno, 2002). As foreign language students are always faced with huge difficulty in learning a new language, providing multimedia environment is being used as an effective way to facilitate learning a foreign language. Learning seems to take less time when people learn languages when they have opportunities to understand and work with language in a context that they comprehend and find interesting. In this view, multimedia is a powerful means for such opportunities. Students will acquire English as they work with materials which they find interesting and relevant and which they can use in their real life. Among the educational materials which can be used on learning, multimedia have been ones which can be effective on learning reading comprehension.

   Reading comprehension development is a pedagogical priority at all academic levels. In the educational field, many efforts have been made to facilitate the complex process of language reading comprehension. More recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of multimedia for developing reading comprehension skills and the present study investigate the connection between multimedia technology and reading comprehension.

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