پایان نامه ارشد رشته زبان انگلیسی : بررسی اختلاط تعلیم و تربیت انتقادی در میان معلمان قبل از خدمت مرد و زن EFL: ارتباط بین سطح مهارت ها و نگرش نسبت به تعلیم و تربیت انتقادی

متن کامل پایان نامه مقطع کارشناسی ارشد رشته :زبان انگلیسی

عنوان : پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی بررسی اختلاط تعلیم و تربیت انتقادی در میان معلمان قبل از خدمت مرد و زن EFL: ارتباط بین سطح مهارت ها و نگرش نسبت به تعلیم و تربیت انتقادی

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

 واحد بین الملل قشم

 

پایان نامه برای اخذ درجه کارشناسی ارشد (MA.A)

برای رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی (TEFL)

بررسی اختلاط تعلیم و تربیت انتقادی در میان معلمان قبل از خدمت مرد و زن EFL: ارتباط بین سطح مهارت ها و نگرش نسبت به تعلیم و تربیت انتقادی

 

 

استاد راهنما :

جناب آقای دکتر کربلایی

تابستان 1393

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چکیده فارسی:

پژوهش حاضر دست به بررسی اختلاط تعلیم و تربیت انتقادی در میان معلمان مرد و زنقبل از خدمت  EFLزد تا از سود درک ارزش  کیفیت و منافع ELT در نگرش های انتقادی بهرمند شود. بنابراین، ارتباط سطح مهارت، جنسیت، و نگرش نسبت به آموزش انتقادی برآورد شد. شرکت کنندگان در این مطالعه 120 معلم قبل از خدمت ایرانی بودند. سطوح مهارت تمام شرکت کنندگان مرد و زن با آزمون IELTS سنجدیده شد. جهت مقایسه دو گروه، گروه مرد تشکیل شده بود از 30 تن با نمره ایلتس 6 و 30 مرد با نمره 5  و همینطور گروه زنان تشکیل شده بود از 30 تن با نمره 6 و 30 تن با نمره 5 . پرسشنامه نگرش تعلیم و تربیت انتقادی قابل اعتماد و معتبر استفاده شده است، و آن از طریق یک روش گام به گام با اطمینان با پایایى0.93 توسعه داده شده است. یافته ها نشان داد که تفاوت جنسی می تواند برارتباط نگرش معلمان قبل از خدمت EFL نسبت به آموزش انتقادی تاثیر تاثیر گذار باشد. همچنین، میانگین نگرش تعلیم و تربیت انتقادی در میان گروه مردان بیشتر از گروه زنان است. بنابراین، تفاوت جنس می تواند راه مطالعه یک معلم در فرهنگ و جامعه زبان آموزانش را با توجه به CP تغییر دهد. با این حال، سطح مهارت معلمان تاثیری بر ارتباط با نگرش CP نمی گذارد. همچنین، این قابل توجه است که یک معلم در کلاس درس (در رابطه با  (مسئول موضوع و دانش خود از طریق تعامل با فراگیران است، بنابراین اگر این امر درست باشد، بهبود سطح مهارت معلمان قبل از خدمت قابل توجه خواهد بود، اما یافته های حال حاضر بااین ادعا مخالف هستند که، معلمان قبل از خدمت و یا معلم کلاسی (با توجه به نگرش انتقادی تعلیم و تربیت) لازم نیستند که به عنوان مثال به سطح زبان انگلیسی خیلی بالای برای کمک به دانش آموزان خود را در پردازش زبان رسیده باشند.

ABSTRACT

The present studied incorporation of Critical Pedagogy among EFL pre-service teachers to offer advantages for understanding the worth of ELT distinguishing qualities and interests of critical attitudes; therefore, the correlation between proficiency levels, sexes, and attitudes toward critical pedagogy was estimated. The participants in this study were 120 Iranian pre-service teachers. All of the male and female participants’ proficiency levels were tested by IELTS. For the reason of comparing the two groups, Male Group had 30 participants with band score 6 and 30 ones with band score 5, and Female Group had 30 participants with band score 6 and 30 ones with band score 5. A reliable and valid Critical Pedagogy Attitude Questionnaire is used, and it was developed through a step-wise procedure with a reliability of 0.93 (Pishvaei & Kasaian, 2013). Findings presented that sex difference can affect the correlation of EFL pre-service teachers’ attitudes toward critical pedagogy. Also, the Critical Pedagogy Attitude mean among male group is greater than female group. Thus, sex difference could change the way a teacher study their learners’ culture and society with respect to CP. However, preservice teachers’ proficiency level did not affect its relation with CP attitude. Also, it is noticeable to mention that a classroom teacher, in relation with CP, has to be responsible for his subject and knowledge through interaction with learners, so if it is true, improving the proficiency level of preservice teacher will be significant, but the present findings present the opposite claim; that is, preservice teachers or teacher, with respect to Critical Pedagogy, do not need to be so knowledgeable, with respect to English language, to help their students in language processing, for example.

 

Key words: Critical Pedagogy, Pre-service teacher

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract                                                                                                                             III

Acknowledgments                                                                                                              IV

Dedication                                                                                                                           V

Table of Contents                                                                                                               VI

List of Tables                                                                                                                       IX

 

CHAPTER I: Background and Purpose                                                                            1

1.0. Overview                                                                                                                     2

1.1. Statement of the Problem                                                                                           7

1.2. Significance of the Study                                                                                           8

1.3. Purpose of the Study                                                                                                  8

1.4. Research Questions                                                                                                    9

1.5. Research Hypotheses                                                                                                 9

1.6. Definition of Keywords                                                                                              10

1.7. Limitation and Delimitation of the Study                                                                  10

 

CHAPTER II: Review of the Related Literature                                                              12

2.0. Overview                                                                                                                     13

2.1. Critical Pedagogy                                                                                                        13

2.1.1. Pedagogical Approach in Critical Pedagogy                                                    16

2.1.2. Critical Pedagogy and Educational Process                                                     21

2.1.3. Critical Pedagogy and the Teachers’ Role                                                        24

2.1.4. Critical Pedagogy and Teacher Success                                                           27

2.1.5. Curriculum in CP                                                                                              30

2.2. Pre-service teacher                                                                                                      31

2.2.1. The difficult and stimulating tasks of pre-service teacher training                   33

2.2.2. Advancing ELT teachers for future and Critical Pedagogy                             35

 

CHAPTER III: Methodology                                                                                         41

3.0. Overview                                                                                                                     42

3.1. Setting and Participants                                                                                              42

3.2. Instruments                                                                                                                 43

3.2.1. Critical Pedagogy Attitude Questionnaire                                                       43

3.2.2IELTS (International English Language Testing System)                                  45

3.3. Procedure                                                                                                                    45

3.3.1. Data Collection                                                                                                 45

3.3.2. Data Analysis                                                                                                    46

3.4. Ethical Considerations                                                                                                46

 

CHAPTER IV: Results and Discussion                                                                              48

4.0. Overview                                                                                                                     49

4.1. Main Results                                                                                                               49

4.2. Discussion                                                                                                                   54

 

 

CHAPTER V: Conclusion and Recommendations                                                           57

5.0. Overview                                                                                                                     58

5.1. Summary                                                                                                                     58

5.2. Brief Overview of the Findings                                                                                  59

5.3. Theoretical and Pedagogical Implications                                                                  60

5.4. Suggestions for Further Research                                                                               61

REFERENCES                                                                                                                    62

 

APPENDIXES                                                                                                                      74

Appendix A: Critical Pedagogy Attitude Questionnaire                                                      75

Appendix B: The Female Group with IELTS Band Score 6                                                77

Appendix C: The Female Group with IELTS Band Score 5                                                79

Appendix D: The Female Group with IELTS Band Score 6                                                            81

Appendix E: The Female Group with IELTS Band Score 5                                                 82

 

 

 

 

 

List of Tables

Table 3.1: Participants’ Characteristics                                                                                   44

Table 3.2: Reliability Coefficient                                                                                            44

Table 4.1: Stastistical Description Critical Pedagogy Attitude Questionnaire and total Band Scores, 6 and 5, of IELTS proficiency test                                                                               49

Table 4.2: One Sample Kolmogorov- Smirnov Test                                                               50

Table 4.3: Group Statistics between IELTS Band Scores                                                      51

Table 4.4: Independent Samples T-Test between Critical Pedagogy Attitude Questionnaire and total Band Scores, 6 and 5, of IELTS proficiency test                                                    51

Table 4.5: Group Statistics between Male Group and Female Group                                    52

Table 4.6: Independent Samples T-Test between Critical Pedagogy Attitude Questionnaire and Gender Difference                                                                                                                               52

Table 4.7: Effect Size                                                                                                             53

Table 5.1: The Brief Overview of All Independent Samples Test                                        60

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER I

Introduction

1.1. Overview

Freire (1970) Critical Pedagogy can be analyzed in many fields of study.

In this respect, Critical Pedagogy (CP) announced to be the way to analyze, education including English Language Teaching (ELT), a new dimension, which has the interaction of social and political elements to holds the view which education is not impartial, and it both affects and is affected by the social and political elements (Freire, 1970).

Critical pedagogy tries to face students with more aims of education to make autonomous students; it is stated that learners acquire their own voice to participate critically in their own processing; that is, confident learners are capable of critiquing learning problems and begin to seek even instruction in their classrooms _what will we have to act in a society in the future?(Freire, 1970).

Recently, ELT researchers try to administer the view of CP to study language learning and acquisition; that is, they are looking for utilizing this social and political theory in assisting teaching as a component of education.

Therefore, they are starting to understand the sociopolitical elements with the represent of the critical viewpoint many scholars in ELT industry as uncovering the hidden aim of scholars’ thoughts and ideologies (Freire, 1970).

Critical theory is interested in the concepts of human beings and the relations between them such as cultural, economic, political, and the power to influence people’s behavior or course of events (Freire, 1973).

Through enabling convert of life requirements, a philosopher of critical theory agrees on satisfying free oppressed members of a race religion or culture (Freire, 1973).

Also, according to Freire (1970), utilizing the body of bases belonging to critical subjects is the main source in language teaching and learning.

Thus, Pre-service teacher education may take advantage of Critical Pedagogy to provide professional ELT teachers before the real actual teaching (Schon, 1996).

A main disclosure during such critical education theory can be the practical section of a course of study when the pre-service teachers are trained to face their students’ critical thoughts within multiple school settings (beginning to advanced courses) (Schon, 1996).

According to Schon(1996), the pre-service teachers will be had the chance to improve their skills through classroom curriculum, teaching lessons, and lesson plans to allow Critical Pedagogy is run.

Therefore, this consoled and vital aspect is the main component of any course, such as ELT courses, to be assigned in curriculums.

Also, because of the viewpoint of critical pedagogy, teachers are capable of bearing the task of questioning the inappropriate curriculums to assist their own learners in language processing, for example (Canagarajah, 1999).

According to Hall (1995), socio-historical and political elements are parts of ELT components which are related to the theory of language learning and teaching in social characteristics of learners.

It seems that Critical Pedagogy is able to gain the momentum to come from a huge amount of experiment to create conditions to help learners in recent years. In spite of acquiring multiple researchers in this area from the past and recent years, it seems that a few papers could target the main and vital characters of Critical Pedagogy in ELT.

Thus, the present study tries to bright a major theme in CP including teacher, for example, in CP. However, Okazaki (2005) argued that classrooms are far removed from conditions which deal with historical and social aspects.

Critical theory face the view of a society in which people require to control political, economic, and cultural aspects of their lives(Kincheloe, 2005).

Critical Pedagogy may be the approach to assist language teachers, for example, to concern the power of learners’ relations with the processed language and their society which they live. Critical Pedagogy (CP) is a start to deal with in a certain way of language teaching and learning.

Kincheloe (2005) believed that converting connections between people or groups of abilities which are depressing leads to depression among the people. CP seeks to give human qualities to learning (Kincheloe, 2005).

Likewise, according to Kincheloe (2005), advocates of critical theory assume that these aims are satisfied only through liberating unsuccessful learners to empower their abilities to change their educational conditions.

The main assumption of Critical Pedagogy is with criticizing the educational context in societies. As Gor (2005) puts it, the main goals of Critical Pedagogy are conscious raising and rejecting any signs of discrimination against people in any field.

Therefore, this theory seeks to help unsuccessful learners, for example, to save them from being objects of acquisition to subjects of their own autonomy in learning.

With this respect, learners are able to change their societies via appropriate education; that is, it is done through problem solving, surveying the problematic subjects in learners’ lives, and developing a critical awareness to assist learners to improve their educational conditions because it is important to take appropriate actions to structure and equitable society (Gor, 2005). Thus, it is crystal clear that Critical Pedagogy face any inappropriate dominations with the goal of assisting unsuccessful people to achieve their demands.

Moreover, “language learning theory, and teaching should focus on larger socio-historical and political forces which reside in the social identities of people who use them” (as cited in Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011, p. 78). However, Okazaki (2005) claimed that most teachers ignore historical and social conditions of their classrooms.

According to Okazaki (2005), as a consequence, researchers advocating examining socio-historical and political aspects of language learning (Benesch, 2001; Canagarajah, 1999, 2002; Morgan 1998). They recommended an optional access – critical pedagogy- which some researchers mentioned it.

It may be the main organ of language pedagogy (Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011). It is wondered to see that Critical Pedagogy has increased in impetus recently; therefore, some substantiation come from a lot of researches about CP to accept this claim.

Byean (2011) claimed that Critical Pedagogy mainly supports teachers to investigate English language in relation to the historical and cultural issues.

However, English teachers must understand ELT with more judgmental minds; furthermore, Critical Pedagogy may encourage English teachers to obtainthe role of English to clarify how ELT is affected with the procreation of social unfairness in distinctive backgrounds (Byean, 2011).

In fact, critical theory was the point of commencement for Critical Pedagogy (Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011).

The main interest of Critical Pedagogy is the act of giving an evaluation of good and bad qualities for schooling in an economic system based on competition between businesses and societies (Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011).

Moreover, the main purposes of Critical Pedagogy “are awareness raising and rejection of violation and discrimination against people” (as cited in Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011, p. 77).

According to Freire (1973), Critical Pedagogy is similar to critical theory, that is, it seeks to convert depression members of a race religion or culture to maintain them “from being objects of education to the subjects of their own autonomy and emancipation” (as cited in Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011, p. 77).

Therefore, language learners can be able to maintain converting their fellowships “through emancipatory education” (as cited in Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011, p. 77).

Also, some language teaching researchers believed “through problem posing education and questioning the problematic issues in learners’ lives, students learn to think critically and develop a critical consciousness which help them to improve their life conditions and to take necessary actions to build an equitable society” (Aliakbari1 & Faraji, 2011, p. 77).

Therefore, Critical Pedagogy stimulates any frameworks of dominion, suppression and subjugation with the purpose of decreasing depression.

Kissing-Styles (2003) mentioned that Critical Pedagogy is an instructive reactionto unfairness relations in instructive places where people are confined and treated.

Also, Byean (2011) claimed that Critical Pedagogy mainly supports teachers to investigate English language in relation to the historical and cultural issues.

However, English teachers must understand ELT with more judgmental minds; furthermore, Critical Pedagogy may encourage English teachers to obtainthe role of English to clarify how ELT is affected with the procreation of social unfairness in distinctive backgrounds (Byean, 2011).

 

1.1. Statement of the problem

Nowadays, Iranian people are interested in learning at least one foreign language to maintain their relationships to the world wide village.

Meanwhile, there has been an increasing inclination among language researchers with the involvement of CP all around the world. The outbreak involvements of CP affect all branches of studies in language pedagogy.

Also, “critical perspectives towards ELT industry and the role of English in the world are immersing worldwide” (Pishvaei & Kasaian, 2013, p. 60).

Therefore, ELT researchers should concern about their obligations of distinguishing the issue ofconcealed particular parts or features of EFL equipment, and supplies needed for English learning such as English teachers.

By concerning the vital role of English teachers and the outgrown interest of Iranian people toward English learning in a country with the Islamic regulations and policies, ones can understand the necessity of reliable and valid documents to judge the worth or quality of Iranian ELT characteristics and interests of a critical attitude. The researchers, therefore, took this important issue into concern.

That is, In the light of the attempts to refine structure of books and writings on this particular subject, Critical pedagogy, and the absence and deficiency of a valid and reliable critical pedagogy thought in the context of Iran, this study is an effect to develop and validate a research to influence community’s critical attitude towards the critical ELT.

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