دانلود پایان نامه زبان انگلیسی:The Impact of Speech Rate on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners`s Listening Comprehension Ability

متن کامل پایان نامه مقطع کارشناسی ارشد رشته : زبان انگلیسی

عنوان : The Impact of Speech Rate on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners`s Listening Comprehension Ability

Islamic Azad University

Rasht Branch

Faculty of Human Sciences

Department of English Language

Presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for (M.A.) degree 

Title:

The Impact of Speech Rate on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners`s Listening Comprehension Ability

Supervisor:

Dr. Morteza Khoda Bandehlou

Date:

(Novamber,2015)

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Table of Contents

Title                                                               Page

Abstract 1

Chapter one: Introduction

1.0 Introduction. 2

1.2 Theoretical Framework. 4

1 .3 statement of problem.. 5

1.4. Significant of the study. 7

1.5. Research Question of the study. 7

1.6. Hypothese of study. 7

1.7. Definitions of Key Terms. 8

1.8. Summary. 8

Chapter Two : Literature review

2.0 Introduction. 9

2.1What is listening?. 11

2.3 Theory of listening comprehension. 15

2.4 Listening strategies. 15

2.5 One-way listening versus two way listening. 17

2.6 General proficiency in listening comprehension. 19

2.7 Empirical research about listening comprehension. 20

2.8 Role’s of listeners in the classroom.. 22

2.9 Relation between listening and speaking. 23

2.10 General framework about the speech rate. 25

2.11 Defining speech rate terminology. 26

2.12 Speech rate and Preceding research. 27

2.13 speech rate and different effect on listening. 29

2.14 Standard speech rate in English. 30

2.15 Speech rate and interlocutor. 33

2.16 Appropriate speech rate. 34

2.17 Natural rate vs slow rate. 36

2.18 Control speech rate vs. slow speech rate. 38

2.19 Problem of speech rate. 40

  1. 20 Modified speech rate and listening. 41

Chapter 3:Methodology

3.0 Introduction. 43

3.1 Design of the study. 44

3.2 Participants. 45

3.3 Materials. 45

3.4 Procedures. 46

3.5 Methods of analyzing data. 47

3.6 Summary. 47

Chapter Four :Results

4.0. Introduction. 47

4.1. Data analysis and findings. 48

4.1.1. Descriptive Analysis of the Data. 48

4.2. Results of Hypothesis Testing. 52

4.3. Summary. 53

Chapter Five General Discussion

5.1 General Discussion. 53

5.2 Pedagogical implication. 54

5.3 Limitation of the study. 55

5.4 Suggestion for further research. 56

References. 57

Appendixes….. 65

Appendix A(OPT Test). 62

Appendix B.. 67

Appendix C.. 71

List of Tables

Title                                                                                                                      Page

Table(1) shows the “normal” and the “slow” SR ranges adopted. Table 1 Note. NS: normal speeds, 3-Sp: 3-second pauses, DA: deliberate articulation The Listening. 27

Table(2) :Measuring unit 32

Table(3): Standard speech rate. 32

Table (4):Showed different speech rate (ideal speech rate). 41

Table4. 1. 49

Table4. 2. Descriptive analysis of pre and posttest in both groups. 50

Table4.3.The results of T-TEST to examine the differences between pre and. 50

post test in control and experimental 50

Table 4.4. Mean and adjusted means of listening comprehension test in post test 50

Table4.5.listening comprehension covariance in both groups. 51

 

List of Figures

Title                                                                                                                     Page 

Figure1.1. the Diagram of the Design of the Study. 44

Figure4.1. level of listening comprehension in both groups (experimental, control). 49

Figure4.2. means of listening comprehension in post test in both groups. 52

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the Impact of Speech Rate on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension Ability. To achieve this purpose, forty four participants intermediate language learners were selected based on their scores on a knowledge on an OPT Test as the randomly assigned to two groups experimental and control group.  Each group was exposed to as pre-test and post-test. At the end of the experiment, to see whether or not any changes happened regarding their comprehension with two different rate of speech .the results suggested that the participants who receive slow speech rate  have higher listening comprehension ability after posttest comparing to control group.

Keywords: Listening Comprehension, Speech Rate, EFL.

Chapter one

1.0 Introduction

This study is the importance of EFL learner’s rate’s of speech, which is essential pre request skills for speaking because that was influenced on listening comprehension of interlocutors so good listeners become good communicators. Although there is the lack of enough research and the systematic investigation about the listening comprehension (Joiner, 1986; Long, 1987; Dunkel,1991; Rubin, 1994; Mendelsohn, 1998) because there is a belief about the this happen that without the natural exposure to spoken language we can’t acquire listening comprehension ability while other skills should be thought through directional instruction in school setting (Herron &Sedy,1991; Schmidt-Rinehart,1992). This belief showed that there is an important attention of researchers on the language and the lack of materials available for teachers who emphasize role of listening for the students L2 learning.  When nonnative listeners have problem for understanding a passage , they usually complain that language is spoken too fast (white,1987) but if they practice listening they can reinforce their speaking and better perceive message .According to Rivers (1966,pp.196, 204) an advocate for listening comprehension , ”Speaking does not of itself constitute communication unless what is said is comprehended by another person… teaching the comprehension of spoken speech is there for of primary importance if the communication aim is to be reached.’ Listening comprehension is important for both teacher and student, Chastain (1976) language teachers and students want to overlook the importance of listening comprehension skill. They do because they fail to developing attention on functional listening comprehension they just attention on fix completely ,speaking, because information processing time factor as an important in listening comprehension.L2 learners have difficulty recognize different part of message ,they can’t separate any noise , syntax and functional, and other part of sentence even in their language therefore they are not good listener when they are contacted with fast speech sound they confused, this happen reflected a question that often heard, ”Do you speak…? ” Obviously, one cannot speak a language unless can understand it .Listening comprehension process is internal not subject to direct and external observation and make correction. Also , since the teachers in their classrooms have little experience for providing class activities for improving students listening comprehension ability they can’t be prepare suitable activity for guidance of learners .The learners for learning to speak English first should learn to understand real language situations to comprehend purpose of native speakers in their speaking .Previous studies showed that many students who go to another country are much less able to perceive native speech than they are to create message ,incomplete as that native speakers can understand. This showed that listening comprehension is necessary for language learning and communicating to real language situation to the teachers and students want to achieve in communication goals. Psychologists describe listening as the comprehending meaning of stream of verbal symbols. Listening comprehension is the most important part of language learning means of the students can’t learn the language without comprehension of it. In spite of learner would like to perceive second language speakers they want to comprehend different speed of speech sound. When students listen to speech sound for making sense of it they should understand perfectly at the first of all gist of native speaker said as part of important skills, listener contrast to reader who has opportunity to go back for understanding, they can’t go back to the next so speaker should have enough knowledge about the speaking and interlocutor for adopting simplified input that called foreign talk to non-native speakers by using a slower speech rate. According to (Dunkel, 1991; Rost, 2001; Vandergrift, 2007) Listening is an important language skill to develop second language acquisition. Listening comprehension in the classroom for some of the learners want to perceive oral presentation of her teacher is the same way need to struggle with listening comprehension they will struggle to learn material presented orally. According to grift (2007) one of the reasons might be that learners are not taught how to learn listening effectively. If the teachers aware of some factors that affect listening comprehension helps them better provide the needs of their students in the fact that how the learners listen, has essential effect on learners job and on the better relationships with others for students listen to get information and enjoyment, to learn and understand Because according to some researchers we remember between 25 percent and 50 percent of what we listen. It means that when we talk with others for 10 minutes, they pay attention to less than half of the conversation. Clearly, listening comprehension is a skill that the learner can improve it by better listening and productivity and the learner should avoid the conflict and misunderstandings as well as their ability to effect in their communication.

1.2 Theoretical Framework

 In recent years, there has been a growing of research on the effects of speech modification on L2 listening comprehension. Speech rate research has not been able to precisely define the rate ranges by EFL listeners of different proficiency levels given the disparity among these ranges , according to Zhao (1997) has led to serious methodological flaws and inconsistent results that make the transferability of these conclusions to other contexts almost impossible. Griffiths (1992) studied the effects of speech rates (127, 188, 250 wpm) on the nonnative speaker’s listening comprehension and concluded that the slowest rate was the most comprehensible and the higher rates led to worse comprehension. Teachers and learners should take into account features of slow and natural speech rate and know that both have some advantages and disadvantages. Griffiths (1992) concluded that reducing the velocity of speech rate was positively related to high listening comprehension mean scores . Slow speech rate may be used as a short path practice for comprehending natural speech rate there for comprehending natural speech rate is the optimal objective . This study underlying psychological building block of application of Krashen’s Input Hypothesis (1985) which postulates i+1 input for  the learner in the learning and teaching settings. Most of the previous studied about speech rate (e.g., Khatib, 2010; Sakaki, 1996)were carried out on high school in their English books and listening comprehension has been involve in syllabus. Therefore the researcher not only found it useful and practical to have a study in high school but also will compare listening comprehension at two different speech rate therefore main objective whether listening to normal versus slow rate effects on Iranian EFL learners listening comprehension ability or not and investigate the impact of speech rate on intermediate EFL learners’ listening comprehension ability.

تعداد صفحه : 85

قیمت : 14000تومان

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شماره کارت :  6037997263131360 بانک ملی به نام محمد علی رودسرابی

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