پایان نامه ارشد رشته زبان انگلیسی : بکارگیری رویکرد تحلیل انتقادی گفتمان به منظور نشان دادن فرهنگ و تفکرات حاکم بر متون سیاسی ترجمه شده

متن کامل پایان نامه مقطع کارشناسی ارشد رشته :زبان انگلیسی

گرایش :مترجمی

عنوان : پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:بکارگیری رویکرد تحلیل انتقادی گفتمان به منظور نشان دادن فرهنگ و تفکرات حاکم بر متون سیاسی ترجمه شده- بررسی موردی ترجمه کتاب سرکوب امید نوشته ویلیام بلوم ترجمه عبدالرضا هوشنگ مهدوی و کتاب همه مردان شاه نوشته استیون کینزر ترجمه شهریار خواجیان

 

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

واحد تهران مرکزی

دانشکده­ی زبان­های خارجی- گروه زبان انگلیسی

پایان نامه برای دریافت درجه­ی کارشناسی ارشد (M.A)

گرایش: مترجمی

عنوان:

بکارگیری رویکرد تحلیل انتقادی گفتمان به منظور نشان دادن فرهنگ و تفکرات حاکم بر متون سیاسی ترجمه شده- بررسی موردی ترجمه کتاب سرکوب امید نوشته ویلیام بلوم ترجمه عبدالرضا هوشنگ مهدوی و کتاب همه مردان شاه نوشته استیون کینزر ترجمه شهریار خواجیان

استاد راهنما:

دکتر هاجر خان­محمد

استاد مشاور:

دکتر مسعود مطهری

تابستان 1392

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Abstract

Translation, as a social and linguistic phenomenon, had been investigated from various viewpoints by scholars with different backgrounds. This research aims at investigating the ideological impacts of the process of translation and its consequences on the representation of ideologies and cultures. In pursuing this goal, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) was found to be an accommodating tool. The theoretical structure of this research is based upon Fairclough’s framework (1989, 1995) which is employed by Dr. Farahzad in Translation Criticism (2007). The corpus used for analysis in this research consists of two books and their corresponding Persian translations: the first book is Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions since World War ΙΙ by William Blum (2003) translated by Abdorreza Houshang Mahdavi as ” . “سرکوب امید، دخالت­های نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد”  The second book is All the Shah’s Men by Stephen Kinzer (2003) translated by Shahryar Khavvajian and entitled “”همه مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی 28 مرداد و ریشه­های ترور در خاور میانه. Examining both texts and their translations from two perspectives of microlevel and macrolevel in chapter 4 illuminated the fact that both translators employed different devices to change the ideological positioning of the source texts and deviate the readers from the route they might have taken through reading the ST toward the one they presumed it was more ideologically efficient regarding the community the books were translated for.

 

  

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Introduction

  • General Overview………………………..…………………………1
  • Statement of the Problem…………..……..……………………….2
  • Rationale and Theoretical Framework of the Study………………3
  • Research Questions………………………………………………..4
  • Research Hypotheses………………………………………………4
  • Significance of the Study………………………………………….5
  • Limitations of the study……………………………………………7
  • Definition of Key Terms…………………………………………..8

Review of the Related Literature

2.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………..10

2.2. The History of Critical Discourse Analysis…………………………12

2.3. Ideology………….………………………………………………….13

2.4. Ideology and Power ……………..………………………………….15

2.5. Translation and Power………………………………………………18

2.6. Impact of Translation on Representation……………………………21

2.7. Robert Hodge and Gunther Kress on CDA….…………………..…23

2.8. Norman Fairclough on CDA………………………………………..28

2.9 Tenn Adrianus Van Dijk on CDA…………………………………..32

2.10. Farzaneh Farahzad on CDA………………………………………36

2.10.1 Microlevel ……………………………………………………37

2.10.1.1 Vocabulary………………………………………………37

2.10.1.2 Grammar…………………………………………………38

2.10.1.3 Multimodal Elements……………………………………40

2.10.1.3.1Multimodal Discourse Analysis……………………40

2.10.2. Macrolevel……….………………………………………………………41

Methodology

3.1. Introduction………………………………………………………………44

3.2. Restatement of Research Questions………………………………..44

3.3. Type of Research …………………….…………………………….45

3.4. Corpus ………………………………………………………………45

3.5. Procedure …………………………………………………………..45

3.5.1. Data Collection ………………..………………………………46

3.5.2. Instrument and Data Analysis……….……………………….47

3.5.2.1Microlevel………………………………………………………..47

3.5.2.1.1. Vocabulary…………………………………………47

3.5.2.1.2. Grammar……………………………………………47

3.5.2.1.3. Analyzing the Cover pages…………………………48

3.6.1.3.1. Method of Analyzing Cover pages………………48

3.5.2.2. Macrolevel………………………………………………48

3.5.2.2.1. Analyzing Translators’ Judgments…………………48

3.5.2.2.2. Translation Strategies………………………………49

3.5.3. Data Sheet……………………………………………………..49

Results and Discussions

4.1 Overview ………………………………………………….52

4.2 Microlevel Analysis…………………………………………………52

4.2.1 Vocabulary……………………………………………………..53

4.2.2. Grammar………………………………………………………54

4.2.2.1 Passive Transformation……………………………………57

4.2.3. Cover page Analysis ………………………………………….58

4.2.3.1 Analyzing the Cover Page of “Killing Hope, US Military and CIA Interventions since World War II”…………………………….59

4.2.3.2. Analyzing the Cover Page of  ”سرکوب امید، دخالت­های نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد” …………………………………62

4.2.3.3 Analyzing the cover page of “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”…………………64

4.2.3.3 Analyzing the cover page of ” همه­ی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی 28 مرداد و ریشه­های ترور در خاور میانه”……………………………………..66

4.3. Macrolevel……………………………..……………………………68

4.3.1. Translator’s Judgments…………………………….………….68

4.3.2. Translation strategies………………………………..…………72

4.3.2.1 ”Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II”…………………………………………………………………………72

4.3.2.1.1 Omission Strategy……………………………………74

4.3.2.1.2 Substitution/ Alteration strategies…………………..77

4.3.2.1.3 Explicitation…………………………………………84

4.3.2.1.4 Mistranslation Strategy………………………………86

4.3.2.1.5 Addition Strategy……………………………………87

4.3.2.1.6 Undertranslation Strategy……………………………89

4.3.2.2 “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror”…………………………………………………..…90

4.3.2.2.1 Omission Strategy……………………………………91

4.3.2.2.2 Substitution/ Alteration Strategies……………….…97

4.3.2.2.3 Explicitation Strategy………………………………107

4.3.2.2.4 Addition Strategy………………………………..…109

4.3.2.2.5 Undertranslation Strategy………………………….113

Conclusion

5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………….….116

5.2 Conclusion…………………………………………………..……..117

5.3 Pedagogical Implications………………………………………..…118

5.4 Suggestion for Further Research…………………………………..119

Bibliograghy………………………………………………….………120

 

 

 

List of Tables and Images

Tables:

Table 3.1 sample of verb tables………………………………………….49

Table 3.2 sample of strategy tables……………………………………..50

Table 3.3 sample of each case’s table………………………………..….51

Table 4.1 verbs, types of verbs, and USA and its related words as agent in “Killing Hope, US military and CIA interventions since World War II” and ” “سرکوب امید، دخالت­های نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد………………………………………………………………………..56

Table 4.2 verbs, types of verbs, and USA and Britain and their related words as agents in “All the Shah’s Men, An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror” and “همه­ی مردان شاه، کودتای آمریکایی 28 مرداد و ریشه­های ترور در خاور میانه…………………………………………………61

Table 4.3  strategies applied in the translation of Killing Hope, ”سرکوب امید، دخالت­های نظامی آمریکا و سازمان سیا از جنگ جهانی دوم به بعد” ……………73

Table4.4 …………………………………………………………………74

Table 4.5…………………………………………………………………74

Table 4.6…………………………………………………………………75

Table 4.7…………………………………………………………………75

Table 4.8…………………………………………………………………75

Table 4.9…………………………………………………………………76

Table 4.10……………………………………………………………….77

Table 4.11……………………………………………………………….77

Table 4.12……………………………………………………………….78

Table 4.13……………………………………………………………….79

Table 4.14……………………………………………………………….79

Table 4.15……………………………………………………………….80

Table 4.16……………………………………………………………….80

Table 4.17……………………………………………………………….81

Table 4.18……………………………………………………………….81

Table 4.19……………………………………………………………….82

Table 4.20……………………………………………………………….82

Table 4.21……………………………………………………………….83

Table 4.22……………………………………………………………….84

Table 4.23……………………………………………………………….84

Table 4.24……………………………………………………………….85

Table 4.25……………………………………………………………….86

Table 4.26……………………………………………………………….86

Table 4.27……………………………………………………………….87

Table 4.28……………………………………………………………….88

Table 4.29……………………………………………………………….88

Table 4.30……………………………………………………………….89

Table 4.31……………………………………………………………….90

Table 4.32……………………………………………………………….91

Table 4.33……………………………………………………………….92

Table 4.34……………………………………………………………….92

Table 4.35……………………………………………………………….93

Table 4.36……………………………………………………………….96

Table 4.37……………………………………………………………….96

Table 4.38……………………………………………………………….97

Table 4.39……………………………………………………………….98

Table 4.40……………………………………………………………….99

Table 4.41……………………………………………………………….99

Table 4.42………………………………………………………………100

Table 4.43………………………………………………………………100

Table 4.44………………………………………………………………101

Table 4.45………………………………………………………………101

Table 4.46………………………………………………………………101

Table 4.47………………………………………………………………102

Table 4.48………………………………………………………………102

Table 4.49………………………………………………………………103

Table 4.50………………………………………………………………103

Table 4.51………………………………………………………………104

Table 4.52………………………………………………………………104

Table 4.53………………………………………………………………105

Table 4.54………………………………………………………………105

Table 4.55………………………………………………………………106

Table 4.56………………………………………………………………106

Table 4.57………………………………………………………………107

Table 4.58………………………………………………………………108

Table 4.59………………………………………………………………108

Table 4.60………………………………………………………………109

Table 4.61………………………………………………………………109

Table 4.62………………………………………………………………110

Table 4.63………………………………………………………………110

Table 4.64………………………………………………………………111

Table 4.65………………………………………………………………111

Table 4.66………………………………………………………………113

Table 4.67………………………………………………………………113

Table 4.68………………………………………………………………114

Table 4.69………………………………………………………………114

Images

Image 4.1 cover page of “Killing Hope”………………………………..59

Image 4.2- Cover Page of “سرکوب امید”………………………………….62

Image 4.3- Cover Page of “All the Shah’s Men”………………………..64

Image 4.4- cover page of ” همه­ی مردان شاه”………………………………66

 

 

 

 

List of Abbreviations:

CDA: Critical Discourse Analysis

CL: Critical Linguistics

ST: Source Text

TS: Translation Studies

TT: Target Text

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER I

Introduction

 

  • General Overview

Translation has been practiced from the very beginning of the human history. In Perez’s words “it is as old as human kind”(2003: 10). Translation has also been discussed from various viewpoints such as linguistic, philosophical, social, and many more. The reason is that the act of translation is involved in more than language and it always takes place in the cultural and political systems and in the history.

Translation studies (TS) owes its development more than anything else to James S. Holmes whose prominent essay, ”the name and nature of translation studies” , was lectured at the Third International Congress of Applied Linguistics in Copenhagen in 1972 (Monday 2001: 10). Since then many aspects of translation, from linguistic to hermeneutic, to philosophical and political have been continually scrutinized. Although most of the first attempts focused on linguistic aspects as the only way to investigate translation, nowadays there are many more tools at hand for researchers to conduct their investigations on the phenomenon of translation. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), which tries ” to read the traces and effects of power in language and discourse, in text and syntax’ (Hodge & Kress, 1993: 153) is one of these tools.

Perez reflects the idea of CDA scholars when states ” all language use is ideological” (2003: 4), and since translation, as a linguistic and social phenomenon, is carried out on language use it can be a manifestation of ideological encounters too. It is worth mentioning in passing that Fairclough believes (1995: 7) discourse is defined as language use in social practices. On the other hand, Fawcett (1998) demonstrates that ”translation, simply because of its existence, has always been ideological” (cited in Perez, 2003: 107).

Translation has been discussed from social and philosophical viewpoints too. In this regard, translation as a ”representation” of another text and a way through which texts are distributed is in need of more investigation. Simon believes “with the cultural turn in translation studies we can now define translation as the dynamics of culture representation” or “as a tangible representation of a secondary or mediated relationship to reality” (1996: 137). Niranjana, a postcolonial writer, in her seminal book Sitting Translation (1992: 10) argues that colonial forces have used translation as a tool to misrepresent oriental colonized subjects and cultures. This point confirms the profound impact of translation on culture.

1.2 statement of the problem

This research makes use of a method based on Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to investigate the effects of the process of translation on representation of source texts and their authors’ ideological position. The present study takes two political works into consideration. The first book under scrutiny is William Blum’s Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions since World War ΙΙ (2003) which is a history book on covert CIA operations and U.S. military interference during the second half of the 20th century. This controversial book is translated by Hushang Mahdavi entitled .”سرکوب امید” This research endeavors to have a microscopic analysis of Blum’s critical vantage points presented in the translated text. In fact, it tries to probe the delineation of his ideas and trace his ideological stands transmitted via language in the present translation. The second part revolves around the close analysis of Stephen Kinzer’s All the Shah’s Men: an American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror (2003). Kinzer, an American journalist, discusses the 1953 Iranian coup d’état backed by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in which Mohammed Mossadegh, Iran’s prime minister was overthrown. This book translated by Shahryar Khavajian being given the title of .”همه مردان شاه”  Setting up these political works as the established corpus of the present study, the researcher uses CDA to investigate the ideological impacts of the process of translation. With recourse to this critical translation approach, the researcher tries to find out how translation changes or modifies the ideological status of translated texts and consequently represents the source texts’ authors and cultures differently.

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شماره کارت :  6037997263131360 بانک ملی به نام محمد علی رودسرابی

11

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