پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی : تاثیر ترانه بر درستی گرامر

متن کامل پایان نامه مقطع کارشناسی ارشد رشته :زبان انگلیسی

عنوان : پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی : تاثیر ترانه بر درستی گرامر

دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

واحد رشت

دانشکده علوم انسانی

پایان نامه تحصیلی جهت اخذ مدرک کارشناسی ارشد

رشته آموزش زبان انگلیسی

عنوان:

تاثیر ترانه بر درستی گرامر

 استاد راهنما:

دکتر مرتضی خدابنده لو  

استاد مشاور:

 شاهرخ جهاندار

بهمن 1392

برای رعایت حریم خصوصی نام نگارنده پایان نامه درج نمی شود(در فایل دانلودی نام نویسنده موجود است)تکه هایی از متن پایان نامه به عنوان نمونه :(ممکن است هنگام انتقال از فایل اصلی به داخل سایت بعضی متون به هم بریزد یا بعضی نمادها و اشکال درج نشود ولی در فایل دانلودی همه چیز مرتب و کامل است)چکیده:تحقیق حاضر، چهار کتاب متداول آموزش زبان انگلیسی در موسسات زبان انگلیسی ایران ( انگلیش ریزالت، توتال این تحقیق به مطالعه تاثیر استفاده ازترانه برروی صحت و درستی گرامر برای زبان آموزان انگلیسی به عنوان زبان خارجه پرداخته است. این تحقیق سعی دارد، میزان بالا بردن سطح آگاهی زبان آموزان ازطریق گوش دادن به مقدارموثری از ترانه که بر روی صحت و درستی گرامری آنها تاثیر دارد، بسنجد. به منظور پاسخ به این سؤال که آیا تاثیری دارد یا خیر، از 60 زبان آموز در سطح متوسط دبیرستان سما لاهیجان که از میان 130 زبان آموز، ازطریق امتحان تعیین سطح آکسفورد  انتخاب شده اند، امتحان گرفته شد. سپس به دو گروه متشکل از 30 شرکت کننده که هر کدام 15دختر و 15 پسرمیباشند، تقسیم گردیدند. شرکت کننده ها در گروه تجربی، آموزش های خاصی بروی آنها صورت گرفت. تا یادگیری نکته های گرامری از طریق گوش دادن به برخی از ترانه ها انجام پذیرد.دراین تحقیق، تمرکزبروی استفاده از ترانه در محیط آموزشی کلاس به این معنی میباشد که فراگیری به صورت ناخوداگاه انجام گردید. از طرف دیگر در گروه شاهد هیچ گونه آموزش خاصی نداشتند و زبان آموزان روش معمول ترم کلاسیشان را که همیشه انجام میدادند، دنبال کردند. دو آزمون استانداردمعتبر گرامر(آزمون قبل از شروع کلاس و آزمون پایانی کلاس) از هر دو گروه  گرفته شد و برگه ها با دقت ارزیابی شدند. اطلاعات دریافتی از گروهها از طریق  آزمون زوجی (تی تست) محاسبه گردید.این نتایج نشان میدهد که میانگین دو گروه به طرز قابل توجهی متفاوت می باشد.از طرف دیگر، نتیجه آزمون پایانی کلاس در میان زبان آموزان پسر و دختر در گروه تجربی از طریق یک آزمون زوجی (تی تست) دیگر مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. هرچند که هیچ گونه تفاوت قابل توجهی بین گروه های دختر و پسر مشاهده نشد.واژگان کلیدی: درستی گرامر، ترانه، جملات پرسشیTable of Content Title                                                                                                                                pageAbstract ………………………………………………………………………….…….….1Chapter 1: introduction
  • . Introduction ……………………………………………………….……………...….2
1.1. Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………….…............4
  • Significance of the study………………………………………….….………….……8
1.3. Purpose of the study…………………………………………………………….....….81.4. Statement of the Problem…………………………………...…………....…...…..…101.5. Research Questions of the Study ………….…………………………...……...….…121.6. Hypotheses of the study…………...…………………………..………………….....131.7. Definition of Key Terms …………………………………………………..….....….131.8. Summary…………………………………………………………………….............13Chapter 2: Review of the Literature2.0 Introduction………………………………...………...…………………….…....…..152.1 Grammar ………………………………………….…...……....................................162.1.1. Historical overview of grammar…………………………………….........… 162.1.2. Different attitudes towards Grammar……………………………………..….182.1.3. Grammar in different points of view…………………………………...…....192.2. Nature of the grammar in Relation to Second Language Acquisition Processes…192.2.1. Input…………………………..……...…………………………..…………...202.2.2. Intake…………………………………………….…….………….…...…..…202.2.3. Acquisition……………….……...…..…………………………………...…….212.2.4. Access…………………………………………………………………..….…..222.2.5.output…………………………………………………………………..….……232.3 Grammar Teaching………………………………………..…………………….........232.3.1. Stages of Grammar Teaching…………….........................................................252.4. Principles of Grammar Teaching in relation to different rules and approaches…..…272.4.1. Some beliefs about explicit grammar…………………………………….……292.4.2. A move towards the implicit………………………………………………..…302.4.3. Implicit instruction……………………………………..………………….…..302.4.3.1. What kind ofknowledge can be learnt implicitly?....................................302.4.3.2. Age and Implicit learning………………………………………….…...312.4.3.3. Theories of SLA and Implicit learning………................................……322.4.3.4. Implicit learning and instructed…………………………………….......32
  1. 4.3.5. Implicit vs. explicit inter-face……...……………………………….….34
2.4.3.6. The relationship between explicit and implicit...……....................…….342.4.4. Consciousness-Raising in Second Language Learning………..……………...35
  1. The interface position…………………………………………...………………....36
  2. The non-interface position……………………………….……………..…....... 38
  3. The variability position……………………………………………………….......40
2.4.4.1. Consciousness-raising in grammar teaching………………….…….….412.4.5. Approaches to teaching Grammar……………………………………….……..442.4.6. Form-based and meaning-based instruction……………………………….……...452.4.6.1. Focus-on-form (FonF) ………………………………………………….…..462.4.6.1.1. Focus on Form Tasks and Techniques………………………………........482.4.6.2. Focus-on-forms (FonFS)………………………………………………..…..482.4.6.3. Focus on Meaning……………………………………………….………….......492.4.7. The role of grammar instruction……………….………………….………….......502.4.8. Some gaps in teaching Grammar………………………………………...…….....522.5. The use of grammatical terminology……………………………………….....…....522.5.1. Communicative competence……………………………..…………………....….532.5.2. Grammatical competence………………………………………….…..….….…..542.5.3. Sociolinguistic competence…………………………………………….….....…..552.5.4. Strategic competence………………………………………………….…....….....552.6. The role of task-based approach on grammatical accuracy and fluency…………..562.7. Nature of songs……………………………………………………………...….….572.8. Conceptual framework and characteristics of Song…………………………….....572.9. The Effects of song on Language Acquisition……………………………….…….592.10. Studies on using song in language classes……………………………….……….592.11. The influence of songs in Foreign Language classes…………………………….60

2.12. Advantages of using songs……………………………………………………….61

2.13. The positive contributions of songs to language learning………………………..612.13.1. Socio-emotional growth………………………………………………………..612.13.2. Physical development…………………………………………………………..622.13.3Cognitive training………………………………………………………………..622.13.4. Language learning………………………………………………………...……622.14. Classification of the song…………………………………………………...….....622.15. The criteria for selecting songs in language teaching…………………..……...…..632.16. Stages of listening to the Song……………………………………………...….…..652.16.1. Pre-listening activities………………………………………..………………..…652.16.2. Listening Activities……………………………………………………............…662.16.3. Post-listening activities……………………………………………………....…..662.17. Practical tips and tasks for using songs……………………………………….……672.18. Summary ……………………………………………………………………..……69Chapter 3: Methodology 3.0. Introduction…………………………………….……………………………………703.1. Pilot Study……………………………………………………………...……………703.2. The Design of the Study………………………………………………….….....……713.3. Participants………………………………………………………………………..…723.4. Instruments and Materials…………………………………………………….......…723.4.1. Oxford Placement Test………………………………………………….…...…723.4.2. Grammar tests…………………………………………………………....….….733.4.3. Song ……………………………………………………………………....……733.4.4. Issues of Reliability and Validity…………………………………….…………733.5. Data collection procedure………………………………………………………..…..743.6. Methods of Analyzing Data ………………………………………………....…...…743.7. Summary……………………………………………………………………........….75Chapter four: Results and discussion4.0. Introduction……………………………………………………………………..…..764.1. pilot study…………………………………………………………………...…..…..774.2. Main study………………………………………………………………...……..….774.2.1. Evaluation of overall foreign language proficiency (OPT test for the sampling purpose)…………………………………………………………………………….…774.2.2. Examining the normality assumption of the parametric tests applied for the research questions……………………………………………………..……..………..794.2.3. The first research question: Does using song have any significant effect on lower intermediate EFL learners’ grammar accuracy?...........................................................814.2.4. The second research question: Does using song affect female and male EFL learners’ grammar accuracy differently?.......................................................................86Chapter Five: Discussion5.0. Introduction …………………………………………………...........................…….885.1. Summary and Conclusions……………………………………………………….….885.2. Pedagogical Implications……………………………………………..……………..905.3. Limitations of the Study……………………………………………………………..915.4. Suggestions for Further Research………………………………………………...….925.5. Summary…………………………………………………………................…….…92Reference …………………………………………………………………………..……93Appendix ………………………………………………………………………………115         List of Tables Table 4.1 Reliability Statistics………………………………………...………………….77Table 4.2 Statistics for the results of OPT test………………………………..………….78Table 4.3Statistics for the pre-test and post –test scores of the control and experimental groups……………………………………………………………………………………79Table 4.4One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test for the pre-test and post-test scores of the control and experimental groups……………………………………………………..80Table 4.5Group statistics for the control and experimental groups on grammar pre-test……………………………………………………………………………………….81Table 4.6Independent Samples Test for the control and experimental groups’ pre-test grammar scores……………………………………………………………………….….82Table 4.7Group statistics for the control and experimental groups on grammar post-test………………………………………………………………………………………..84Table 4.8Independent Samples Test for the control and experimental groups’ pre-test grammar scores…………………………………………………………………………..84Table 4.9Group statistics for the male and female groups on grammar post-test…………………………………………………………………………………….….86Table 4.10Independent Samples Test for the control and experimental groups’ pre-test grammar scores………………………….……………………………………………….86     List of Figures Figure 2.1 A Model of Second Language Learning and Use….…………….…………...19Figure 4.1 Experimental and control groups’ scores in grammar accuracy test (pre-test)………………………………………………………………………………..…...…83Figure 4.2 Experimental and control groups’ scores in grammar accuracy test (post-test)………………………………………………………………………………..…...…85Figure 4.3 The comparison between male and female participants’ grammar scores in post-test………………………………………………………….……….……….………….87  Abstract The present study investigated the effect of using song on Iranian EFL learners’ grammar accuracy (WH-question). This study tried to determine the extent to which awareness raising along with efficient amount of listening to song affects the grammar accuracy of Iranian Intermediate learners. To answer this question, 60 Intermediate language learners in Sama high school in Lahidjan who were selected via administration of an OPT exam to 130 language learners. Then, they were divided into two groups of 30 participants each, in which 15 male and 15 female have been put. Participants in the experimental group were instructed on a certain plan to gasp the grammatical point by listening to some songs. In this study the focus was on using song in class environment which means grammatical points can better be extracted unconsciously. In the control group no treatment has been done and learners received a normal routine of the semester as they always did. Two validated standardized tests of grammar (pre-test and post-test)were administered to both groups, the papers were assessed carefully .The data retrieved from both groups was analyzed through calculating a t-test. The results indicated that the means of the two groups were significantly different. In another attempt the post-test result of male and female participants in experimental group have been analyzed via running of another round of a t-test, however, no significant difference has been notified between male and female participants. Key terms: Grammar accuracy; Song; WH-question      Chapter OneIntroduction      1.0. IntroductionTeaching a foreign language is so complex that grammar is the most difficult problems of anyone who wishes to teach it systematically. Teaching grammar has always seen one of the controversial issues in both second and foreign language teaching. As Batstone (1994) states, grammar is a greatly broad and diverse phenomenon which characterizes three interdependent dimensions: form, meaning and use. This perspective on grammar, where forms are shown in direct association with meaning, views grammar as an integral part of the language. Grammar is a device for making and expressing meaning without which, effective communication would not be possible. On Richards and Schmidt (2002) have known grammar as a description of the structure of a language and the way in which linguistic units such as words and phrases are joined together to produce sentences in a language.There is a variety of grammar teaching techniques that make learning grammar easy to students.  Some of the most useful tasks that have been proposed for practicing both grammar and communication are songs. Many language researchers and teachers such as (Read, Griffee, Rosová …) have recognized the pedagogic value of language songs, arguing that their value also consists of their ability to enhance students’ motivation and participation in general. The purpose of this study is how listening to songs can be helpful to students in order to speak English more accurately.Researchers have confirmed that highly motivated language learning starts with the students and what they are interested in. All children love songs and like to sing songs. Based on this nature of the young learners, song has been applied in the EFL/ESL classrooms. There exists much of literature evidence introduced that song can have a beneficial role in teaching to learners. As Read (2007) states, the use of songs enhances children’s language learning and language acquisition. In order to teach the second language, songs can make use of them in different ways. “No one knows why songs are powerful, but everyone knows from a personal point of view they are” (Griffee, 1995, p. 4, cited in Rosová, 2007). Songs become the most helpful educational tool that helps the language acquisition as well as the whole learner’s physical and mental development. Like rhythm, songs can be seen an integrated part of a sequence of work in the classroom so that they can boost their effects for the learners, especially for the young children. The dominance of our sense of hearing and with it our sensitivity to music, propose that music and song have a closer appeal to our ‘language acquisition device’ than spoken language’ (Murphey, 1992). This theory has been granted greater possibility by the evidence that musical and language processing take place in the same area of the brain (Maess and Koelsch, 2001). This proves that our brains identify the constituents of musical and linguistic sequences in the same way.Ordinary attributes of songs, the rapidity with which they can be unconsciously and accidentally memorized (the ‘I can’t get that song out of my head’ –syndrome), and the insistence of the melody-lyrics link that allows songs to be recalled in their entirety even after years of absence from the ‘conscious’ memory. (Mishan, 2005, p.198).The importance of songs in motivating students to learn English and increase learner involvement is widely searched by ESL practitioners (Reeve & Williamson, 1987; Guidice, 1986). Listening to music is often considered as one of the most students’ hobbies, thus providing relevance to their lives. Murphey (1992) claims that ‘songs occur whenever and wherever one hears them and they are, consciously or subconsciously, about the people in one’s own life’. (p. 8). This relevance to one’s life is essential in motivating students as it offers a connection from English in song to their daily lives as music listeners (Chambers, 1999). Chambers gives emphasis to the notion that if learners cannot feel the relationship between the activity and the world in which they live, so then the point of the activity is likely lost on them.According to Krashen (1982), songs make language input available which can be a crucial element in language acquisition. Songs also show culture, which plays a considerable role in language learning. They usually include themes surrounding a topic or issue that equip context for learning vocabulary. Being a form of discourse, songs, naturally extend speaking into a new context through the sung word (Murphey, 1992). In brief the main intent of this research was born of this to validate through research the pedagogical perceptions about the usefulness of songs in the L2 classroom, given the fact that there exists a major gap in the L2 literature regarding this issue.تعداد صفحه : 145قیمت : 14000تومان

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