پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی: On Etymological Elaboration and its Potential Effect on the Iranian EFL Learner’s Knowledge of Opaque Idioms

متن کامل پایان نامه مقطع کارشناسی ارشد رشته :زبان انگلیسی

عنوان :  On Etymological Elaboration and its Potential Effect on the Iranian EFL Learner’s Knowledge of Opaque Idioms

Islamic Azad University of Rasht

Faculty of humanities

English Language Department

 A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the M.A. degree in English Teaching as A Foreign Language

 On Etymological Elaboration and its Potential Effect on the Iranian EFL Learner’s Knowledge of Opaque Idioms

Supervisor

Dr. HamedBabaieShalmani

 

February, 2015

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Table of contents

Title

Acknowledgements

Abstract …………………………………………………………………   ………………1

Chapter One

 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………… 3 Statement of the problem………………………………………………………… 4 Significance of the study …………………………………………………………7 Objective of the study……………………………………………………………8 Research question ……………………………………………………………… 8 Research hypotheses ………………………………………………………………8 Definition of the key words……………………………………………………… 8

Chapter Two

2.0Introduction……………………………………………………………………… 11

2.1       Brief review of idiom structure and definition……………………………………13

2.2.1    Structure of Idioms……………………………………………………………….13

2.2.2   Definition of idioms …………………………………………………………….16

2.3       Employed strategies in idioms learning………………………………………….18

2.3.1 Communicative Skills: Teach English Idioms with Dialogue Writing and………19

Role-Play

2.3.2 Applying English Idioms through Dialogue Writing and Role-play in a……….19   Particular context

2.4 figurative and literal meaning of idiom………………………………….…….23

2.4.1 Idioms and Metaphors……………………………………………...….…….24

2.4.2 Idioms and Clichés……………………………………………….…..….…. 24

2.4.3 Idioms and Proverbs…………………………………….………….….……25

2.4.4 Idioms and Fixed Expressions………………………..…………….………26

2.5 Transparent and Opaque idioms…………….……..………….……………….26

2.6 The study of idiomaticity in a glance…….……….……….………………….30

2.7 Problems in Teaching L2 Idioms….……………….………….………………31

2.8 Strategies Employed in L2 Idiom Processing………….…….………………...32

2.9 The Role of Vocabulary and Culture in Understanding Idioms………………..33

2.10 The Role of Context in Idiom Comprehension…………………….…………34

2.11 Idiomatic Competence…………………………………………………….….37

2.11.1 Measuring Idiomatic Competence…………………………………….……38

2.12 Idiom-Related Research in Language Learning and Use…………………….39

2.13 The Importance of Idioms and the Case for the Lexicon…………………….41

2.14 Idiom Acquisition……………………………………………………………42

2.15 The Dual coding theory………………………………………………………45

2.16 Etymological elaboration……………………………………………….…….46

2.16.1 Etymological Elaboration, an Effective Strategy in Teaching Idioms………51

Chapter Three

3.0. Introduction…………………………………………………………………… 56

3.1. Participants……………………………………………………………………...56

3.2. Instruments……………………………………………………………………...56

3.3. Procedures………………………………………………………………………57

Chapter Four

4.0. Introduction…………………………………………………………………….61

4.1. Descriptive statistics for experimental and control groups’ posttest…………...62

4.2. Results of Hypothesis Testing…………………………………………………63

4.3. Summary of the results………………………………………………………...64

 

Chapter Five

5.0. Introduction………………………………………………………………….66

5.1. Summary of the findings…………………………………………………….66

5.2. Pedagogical implications…………………………………………………… 67

5.3. Limitations and delimitations of the study……………………………………68

5.4. Suggestions for the further research………………………………………….68

5.5. Interview………………………………………………………………………69

Abstract

On Etymological Elaboration and its Potential Effect on the Iranian EFL Learner’s Knowledge of Opaque Idioms.

Idioms are much more than ‘decorative icing’ to the language; they are an integral feature of both written and spoken English. The ability to comprehend and use idiomatic language is one of the distinguishing marks of native-like competence. In this research study, the target population of this study were 60 female EFL students at intermediate level of proficiency. All of the participants were native speakers of Persian studying at the Iran Language Institute of Rasht; Iran. After calculating OPT results and validating the idioms test through pilot study, the participants were divided into two groups to receive different treatments: Control Group:received no Etymological knowledge, but they received treatment through a conventional method, (definition of the opaque idioms with examples).Experimental Group:received instruction through etymological elaboration, (Etymological Information with examples). The research question sought to investigate which technique of teaching idioms yields better results in improving learners’ opaque idioms knowledge. The results of the opaque idioms posttest indicated that the group instructed through etymological elaboration had better performance, the group receiving explicit instruction of opaque idioms’ definitions had lower performance. However, the T-Test procedure revealed that the difference between the performances of the two groups were statistically significant. In other words, etymological information of the opaque idioms had significantly different effect on the learners’ knowledge of opaque idioms.Based on the results, it can be concluded that etymological information of idioms has differential effects on the knowledge of opaque idioms of Iranian EFL learners. In addition, etymological information is conducive to Iranian intermediate learners' knowledge of opaque idioms.

Chapter 1

Statement of the problem

1.0 introduction

Teaching and learning English idioms have long been a difficult task for both EFL students and teachers in Iran due to some reasons such as lack of resources and little contact with the target language (Sadeghi, 2005). Among different components of a language (grammar, vocabulary, phrasal verbs, idioms, expressions…) learning the idioms is probably the most difficult task to be accomplished. In one hand, learning idioms has always been a big problem for students, especially foreign language learners. On the other hand, any foreign language learner knows that idioms are essential and their shortage leads to a feeling of insecurity.

According to Glucksberg (2001) the meaning of the idioms can be guessed from the meaning of one of their subcomponents but usually the meaning is completely different, this is the reason why they are so tricky for students. Boers (1992) stated that it is inevitable for students to face problems dealing with idioms by knowing this fact that their meanings are not clear and are motivated by their original, literal usage and the meanings of idioms cannot be attained directly at the first look and the tricky nature of idioms makes students face problems extracting their meanings.

Since L2 learners have difficulties in learning and using the phrasal words and idioms, and the traditional methods used by teachers do not make significant changes in L2 learner’s idiom learning, new techniques for teaching idioms to L2 learners are required. By the emergence of new approaches to teach a second language, finding a good method to teach idioms has been the main concern of some researchers (e.g., Elena & Moreno, 2001; Cook, Fazly, & Stevenson, 2007). To the researchers best knowledge; few studies have been conducted to examine the effect of different methods of teaching idioms to EFL learners.

As a result, this study is designed to investigate the effect of etymological information ofidioms on Iranian EFL learners’ knowledge of opaque idioms.

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