پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:A Socio-Cultural Prospect toward Translation of Tourism Texts on the Basis of Venuti’s Domestication and Foreignization Theory A Case Study of Eastern Azarbaijan Tourism Texts

متن کامل پایان نامه مقطع کارشناسی ارشد رشته :زبان انگلیسی

عنوان : A Socio-Cultural Prospect toward Translation of Tourism Texts on the Basis of Venuti's Domestication and Foreignization Theory A Case Study of Eastern Azarbaijan Tourism Texts

Islamic Azad University

East Azarbaijan Science and Research Branch

 

M.A. Thesis

in English Translation Studies

Subject:

A Socio-Cultural Prospect toward Translation of Tourism Texts on the Basis of Venuti's Domestication and Foreignization Theory A Case Study of Eastern Azarbaijan Tourism Texts

Supervisor:

Bahloul Salmani, Ph.D.

Advisor:

Bahram Behin, Ph.D.

Summer 2013

برای رعایت حریم خصوصی نام نگارنده پایان نامه درج نمی شود(در فایل دانلودی نام نویسنده موجود است)تکه هایی از متن پایان نامه به عنوان نمونه :(ممکن است هنگام انتقال از فایل اصلی به داخل سایت بعضی متون به هم بریزد یا بعضی نمادها و اشکال درج نشود ولی در فایل دانلودی همه چیز مرتب و کامل است)

 

Abstract

Tourism is a lens that provides unique insights into the social, cultural, political and economic processes operating in specific environments. Tourism brochures are texts loaded with culture-specific items. For my research I have chosen the culture specific items (CSIs) of Eastern Azarbaijan Tourism Texts according to Vlahov and Florin (1980) categorization to contrast them with their English versions to find out whether they are domesticated or foreignized according to Venuti's (1995) theory. This thesis discusses and describes the domesticating and foreignizing translation techniques that are introduced by Lawrence Venuti, applied in the English translations of culture-specific items of Eastern Azarbaijan tourism brochures. It is important to transmit the message adequately, or it may lead to loss of business. Domesticating and foreignizing strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating tourist texts. Domestication approach describes the translation strategy in which a transparent and fluent style is adopted in order to minimize the strangeness of the foreign text for TL readers. Foreignization approach designates the type of translation in which a TT is produced which deliberately breaks target conventions by retaining something of the foreignness of the original. This study first gives a short overview of the concept of culture-specific items and of the domesticating and foreignizing approaches of translation that are applied when translating them. Then it is going to do a contrastive analysis of culture-specific items of Eastern Azarbaijan in Persian language and their translation in English based on domesticating and foreignizing theories to identify the cultural gap in tourism brochures. Finally, based on the study and analysis of domestication and foreignization from the prospective of culture, this thesis draws a conclusion that foreignization should be the major strategy for translation of culture specific items exist in Eastern Azarbaijan Tourism Texts with domestication as a supplement. The results observed in this thesis, is shown on the figures as well. In the process of English globalization, the strategy of foreignizing translation is not only faithful to the original, but also a way to protect and develop Azeri and Persian language and culture.

Key Words:

Translation, Culture, Domestication, Foreignization, Tourism Texts, Eastern Azarbaijan

Abbreviations:

  • Source Text: ST
  • Target Text: TT
  • Culture Specific Item: CSI

Table of Content

Title Page

Abstract

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abbreviations

Table of Content…………………………………………………………………….………….I

List of Tables………………………...……………………………………………………..XVI

List of Figures………………………..…………………………………………………......XVI

Chapter One: Introduction………………………………………………………………..……1

1.1. Overview….……………………………………………………………………….1

1.2. Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………….…6

1.3. Purpose of the Study………………………………………………………………7

1.4. Significance of the Study………………………………………………………….8

1.5. Research Questions and Hypothesis………………………………………………8

1.5.1. Research Questions...……………………………………………………8

1.5.2. Research Hypothesis…………………………………………………….9

1.6. Definition of key terms……………………………………………………………9

1.6.1. Translation………………………………………………………………9

1.6.2. Cultural Translation……………………………………………………10

1.6.3. Domestication………………………………………………………….10

1.6.4. Foreignization………………………………………………………….10

1.7. Limitations and Delimitations……………………………………………………10

1.7.1. Limitations……………………………………………………………..10

1.7.2. Delimitations…………………………………………………………...11

1.8. Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………………..11

Chapter Two: Review of the Related Literature…………………….………………………..12

2.1. History of the Theory of Translation…………………………………………….12

2.1.1. Domestication in Early Translation in England…………......................14

2.1.2. Domestication in Early Translation Theories……………..…………...17

2.1.3. Fluency Techniques and Alternative Translation Strategies in the 17th-18th Centuries26

2.1.4. Victorian Age and Foreignization…………………………………...…32

2.1.5.Early 20th century–theory and practice in Britain and America……….41

2.1.6. Alternative points of view…………………………………..……….…44

2.1.7. Theory and Practice in the 1960s…………………………………...….49

2.1.8. The cultural turn in translation studies……………………………...….54

2.1.9.Criticism of Venuti’s Theory of Domestication and Foreignization…...65

2.1.10. Conclusion……………………………..……………………………..76

2.2. Culture Specific Items……………………………………………………….…...79

2.3. Tourism…………………………………………………………………………..83

2.3.1. Tourist…………………………………………..………………….…..86

2.4. Eastern Azarbaijan……………………………………………………………….87

2.4.1. Tabriz………………………………………………………………......89

2.4.1.1. Tabriz is the City of Beauties………………….……………..89

2.4.1.2. Tabriz from the View of Tourists…………………………....91

2.4.1.3. The Famous Persons and Luminaries of Tabriz……………...93

2.4.1.4. Tabriz the City of Pioneers……………………………….….94

Chapter Three: Methodology………………………………………………………………....95

3.1. Overview……………………………………………………….………………...95

3.2. Design……………………………………………………………………………97

3.3. Corpus………………………………………………………...………………….97

3.4. Samples…………………………………………………………………………..98

3.5. Instrumentation…………………………………………………………………..98

3.6. Data Collection and Data Analysis Procedure……………….…………………..98

Chapter Four: Data Analysis…………………………………………………………..…….100

4.1. Overview………………………………………………………………………..100

4.2. Samples…………...……………...……………………………………………..105

4.2.1. Geographical Culture Specific Items……………..…………………..106

4.2.1.1. Sample 1. Magbarat-al-Shoara…………………….…..……106

4.2.1.2. Sample 2. Arg-E-Alishah……………..…………….………108

4.2.1.3. Sample 3. Masjid-E-Kabud…………...……………….……110

4.2.1.4. Sample 4. El-Goli (Shah-Goli)………….……………….….111

4.2.1.5. Sample 5. Boq-E Saheb-ol-Amr………….………………...112

4.2.1.6. Sample 6. Pol-E Aji Chai…………………..…………….…113

4.2.1.7. Sample 7: Borj-E Khalat-Pooshan………………………….114

4.2.1.8. Sample 8. Hamam-E Nobar………………...………………115

4.2.1.9. Sample 9. Rabae Rashidiye…………………………….…...115

4.2.1.10. Sample 10. Boq-E Oun-ibn-E Ali…………………….…...116

4.2.1.11. Sample 11. Bagh-E Do-Kamal…………….…....................117

4.2.1.12. Sample 12. Mooz-E-Ye Azarbaijan………………….……118

4.2.1.13. Sample 13. Meidan-E Shohada………………....................119

4.2.1.14. Sample 14. Pol-E Ghari……………………………….…..120

4.2.1.15. Sample 15. Khan-E-Ye Mashrooteh………………….…...121

4.2.1.16. Sample 16. Bazaar-E Tabriz……………….……………...123

4.2.1.17. Sample 17. Bagh-E Golestan………………………….…..123

4.2.1.18. Sample 18. Mooze-Ye Sanjesh…………………………....124

4.2.1.19. Sample 19. Masjid-E Jame Tabriz………………………...125

4.2.1.20. Sample 20. Boqe Seyyed Hamzeh………………………...127

4.2.1.21. Sample 21. Borj-E Atashneshani…………………….……127

4.2.1.22. Sample 22. Masjid-E Ostad Shagerd……….……………..128

4.2.1.23. Sample 23. Khane-YE Haidar Zade……………….………129

4.2.1.24. Sample 24. Mouze-YE Qajar……………………………...130

4.2.1.25. Sample 25. Darre-YE Liqvan………….…………………..131

4.2.1.26. Sample 26. Aji Chay (Talkheh Rood)…………….……….131

4.2.1.27. Sample 27. Pol-E Kabli (Etehad-E Melli)………..……….132

4.2.1.28. Sample 28. Boq-E Seyyed Ibrahim…………….………….133

4.2.1.29. Sample 29. Bazaar-E Ghazan………….…………….…….133

4.2.1.30. Sample 30. Jadde Abrisham…………………………….…134

4.2.1.31. Sample 31. Timche Amir………………………….………134

4.2.1.32. Sample 32. Timche Mozafari-E………….………………..135

4.2.1.33. Sample 33. Qoll-E Sorkhab……………….………………135

4.2.1.34. Sample 34. Kakh-E Ostandari………………………….….136

4.2.1.35. Sample 35. Khangah-E Goosh Khane…….…………….…136

4.2.1.36. Sample 36. Ghar-E Qadamqah…………….……………....137

4.2.1.37. Sample 37. Cheshme Tap Tapan……………………..……138

4.2.1.38. 4.2.1.38. Sample 38. Daryache-YE Uremia….....................138

4.2.1.39. Sample 39. Hammam-E Mehr Abad……………………....138

4.2.1.40. Sample 40. Masjid-E Mehr Abad……….………………...139

4.2.1.41. Sample 41. Abshar-E Asiyab Kharabeh….……………….139

4.2.1.42. Sample 42. Borj-E Dozal………………….………………140

4.2.1.43. Sample 43. Qale-YE Kordasht………………….…………140

4.2.1.44. Sample 44. Hammam-E Kordasht………….……………..141

4.2.1.45. Sample 45. Darre-YE Kabutaran……………………….…141

4.2.1.46. Sample 46. Abshar-E Sarkand Dizaj……………………....142

4.2.1.47. Sample 47. Kelisa-YE Mujumbar……………....................142

4.2.1.48. Sample 48. Emarat-E Thomanians………………………...143

4.2.1.49. Sample 49. Kelisa-YE Veinaq…………………………….144

4.2.1.50. Sample 50. Qale-YE Babak………………………….……144

4.2.1.51. Sample 51. Gunbad-I Ghaffariye…………………….……145

4.2.1.52. Sample 52. Gunbad-I Kabood……………………………..145

4.2.1.53. Sample 53. Pol-E Dokhtar………………………….……..146

4.2.1.54. Sample 54. Rood Khane-YE Gizil Uzan…………….……147

4.2.1.55. Sample 55. Qale Dokhtar…………………………….……147

4.2.1.56. Sample 56. Qaflankooh…………………………………....148

4.2.1.57. Sample 57. Mantaqe-YE Chichakli……….………………149

4.2.1.58. Sample 58. Qale Jowshin………………….………………149

4.2.1.59. Sample 59. Qale Zahak…………………….……………...150

4.2.1.60. Sample 60. Kooh-E Sormelu……………….……………..150

4.2.1.61. Sample 61. Kooh-E Bozgush………………………….…..150

4.2.1.62. Sample 62. Kooh-E Kamtal…………………………….…151

4.2.1.63. Sample 63. Hammam-E Chaharsue…………………….…152

4.2.1.64. Sample 64. Masjid-E Roomian………………....................152

4.2.1.65. Sample 65. Bana-YE Tappe Mosalla………….…………..153

4.2.1.65. Sample 65. Maqbare Oliya-Ye Qazi Jahan………………..153

4.2.1.66. Sample 66. Boqe Pir Jabir………………………………....154

4.2.1.67. Sample 67. Masjid-E Sakhre-IE Gadamqah……………....154

4.2.1.68. Sample 68. Mantaqe-YE Geermizigol…….………………154

4.2.1.69. Sample 69. Masjid-E Ojuzlu…………………....................155

4.2.1.70. Sample 70. Kooh-E Sultan Daghi…………………….…...155

4.2.1.71. Sample 71. Qale Pishtu…………………….……………...155

4.2.1.72. Sample 72. Karvansara-YE Al-Khalaj………………….…156

4.2.1.73. Sample 73. Talab-E Quri Gol……………………….…….156

4.2.1.74. Sample 74. Mantaqe-YE Shah Yurdi……………………...157

4.2.1.75. Sample 75. Pol-E Panj Chashme……………………..……157

4.2.1.76. Sample 76. Masjid-E Zargaran……………………….…...158

4.2.1.77. Sample 77. Kelisa-YE Choopan……………………….….158

4.2.1.78. Sample 78. Kooh-ha-YE Sangi Uch Gizlar….……………159

4.2.1.79. Sample 79. Cheshme-YE Pir Sagga………….……………159

4.2.1.80. Sample 80. Abshar-E Pir Sagga…………………………...160

4.2.1.81. Sample 81. Ghar-E Hajji Abad…………………………....160

4.2.1.82. Sample 82. Pol-E Gavdush Abad………………….………161

4.2.1.83. Sample 83.Maqbare-YE Ilkhani-YE Asafestan…………...161

4.2.1.84. Sample 84. Ab-E Garm-E Asbfrooshan………….………..161

4.2.1.85. Sample 85. Ab-E Garm-E Allah-Haq………………….….162

4.2.1.86. Sample 86. Kelisa-YE Sohrel………………………….….162

4.2.1.87. Sample 87. Pol-E Tirvan……………………………….….163

4.2.1.88. Sample 88. Pol-E Tarikhi Gizil Korpu………….………....163

4.2.1.89. Sample 89. Qale Barazlu…………………………………..164

4.2.1.90. Sample 90. Sakhteman-E Inali………….…………………164

4.2.1.91. Sample 91. Borj-E Farrokhi……………………….………164

4.2.1.92. Sample 92. Pol-Ha-YE Khoda-Afarin….…………………165

4.2.1.93. Sample 93. Borj-E Qarluja………….……………………..165

4.2.1.94. Sample 94. Galae Darasi……………………….………….166

4.2.1.95. Sample 95. Ab-E Garm-E Motaaleg……….……………...166

4.2.1.96. Sample 96. Zoghal Akhte……………………………..…...167

4.2.1.97. Sample 97. Borj-E Modavar……………….……………...168

4.2.1.98. Sample 98. Gunbad-I Sorkh…………………….…………168

4.2.1.99. Sample 99. Sadd-E Alavian………………………….……169

4.2.1.100. Sample 100. Ghar-E Kabootar……………………….…..169

4.2.1.101. Sample 101. Mabad-E Mehr………………………….….170

4.2.1.102. Sample 102. Hammam-E Khaje Nasir………….………..170

4.2.1.103. Sample 103. Tappe Yaldor……………….…....................171

4.2.1.104. Sample 104. Shorsu………….……………………….…..171

4.2.1.105. Sample 105. Aqche Qala……………….………………...172

4.2.1.106. Sample 106. Gunbad-I Allah Allah……………….….…..173

4.2.1.107. Sample 107. I- Qalasi……………………….……………173

4.2.1.108. Sample 108. Okuz Daghi………………………………...174

4.2.1.109. Sample 109. Kooh-E Sahand…………………………….175

4.2.1.110. Sample 110. Kooh-E Sabalan…………………………....175

4.2.2. Ethnographic Culture Specific Items…………..……………….…….176

4.2.2.1.Sample 1.Sang Nebeshteye Orartu-YEE Razliq…………….176

4.2.2.2. Sample 2. Katibe Urartu-YEE Javan Qale…………….……176

4.2.2.3. Sample 3. Mahale-YE Sorkhab………….………………….177

4.2.2.4. Sample 4. Sang-E Besmellah…………………………….…177

4.2.2.5. Sample 5. Varni……………………………….………….…178

4.2.2.6. Sample 6. Ghorabieh…………………………………….….178

4.2.2.7. Sample 7. Baslog………….…………………………….…..179

4.2.2.8. Sample 8. Pashmak…………………………………….…...179

4.2.2.9. Sample 9. Eriss………………………………….…………..180

4.2.2.10. Sample 10. Noga…………………………….…………….180

4.2.2.11. Sample 11. Kufta-Tabrizi………….………………………181

4.2.2.12. Sample 12. Polow…………………………....…………....181

4.2.2.13. Sample 13. Dolme………………………………………....182

4.2.2.14. Sample 14. Panir-E Liqvan………………………………..182

4.2.2.15. Sample 15. Jazire-YE Islami……………………………....183

4.2.2.16. Sample 16. Kandovan……………………………………..183

4.2.2.17. Sample 17. Ushtabin……………………………………....184

4.2.2.18. Sample 18. Bandar Sharafkhane…………………………..184

4.2.2.19. Sample 19. Ash…………………………………………....185

4.2.2.20. Sample 20. Dizi………….………………………………...186

4.2.2.21. Sample 21. Bonab Kabab-I………………………………..187

4.2.2.22. Sample 22. Dooshab……………………………………....187

4.2.2.23. Sample 23. Roosta-YE Girmizi Gol…………....................188

4.2.2.24. Sample 24. Kalagaei……………………………………....188

4.2.2.25. Sample 25. Gelim…………………………………….……189

4.2.2.26. Sample 26. Jajim…………………………………………..189

4.2.2.27. Sample 27. Tikme Dash…………………………………...190

4.2.2.28. Sample 28. Gara Aghaj…………………………………....190

4.2.2.29. Sample 29. Roosta-YE Ivand………………………….…..191

4.2.2.30. Sample 30. Ajabshir………….……………………………191

4.2.2.31. Sample 31. Abesh Ahmad……………….………………...192

4.2.2.32. Sample 32. Sujug………………………………………….192

4.2.2.33. Sample 33. Malekan…………….………………………....193

4.2.2.34. Sample 34. Miyaneh……………………………………....193

4.2.2.35. Sample 35. Hashtrood……………………………………..194

4.2.2.36. Sample 36. Osku…………………………………………..195

4.2.2.37. Sample 37. Jolfa……………………….…………………..195

4.2.2.38. Sample 38. Ahar…………………………………………...196

4.2.2.39. Sample 39. Kaleybar………………………………………196

4.2.2.40. Sample 40. Shabestar……………………………………...197

4.2.2.41. Sample 41. Marand………………………………………..197

4.2.2.42. Sample 42. Herris………………….………………………199

4.2.2.43. Sample 43. Azar Shahr……………………….…………....199

4.2.2.44. Varzgun……………………………………………….…...199

4.2.2.45. Sample 45. Bostan Abad………….……………………….200

4.2.2.46. Sample 46. Hadi Shahr……………………….…………....200

4.2.2.47. Sample 47. Katibe Urartu-YEE Seqendil………………....201

4.2.2.48. Sample 48. Shir Yeki Pich Bafi…………………………...201

4.2.2.49. Sample 49. Bonab………………………………………....202

4.2.2.50. Sample 50. Maraghe……………………………………....202

4.2.2.51. Sample 51. Char Oimagh………………………………….203

4.2.2.52. Sample 52. Sarab………………………………….……….203

4.2.2.53. Sample 53. Tabriz………………………………………....204

4.2.2.54. Sample 54. Tasooj…………………….…………………...204

4.2.2.55. Sample 55. Ilkhechi……………………………….……….205

4.2.3. Art and Cultural Culture Specific Items…………..………………….205

4.2.3.1. Sample 1. Nowruz………………………………….……….206

4.2.3.2. Sample 2. Golshan-E Raz…………………………………..206

4.2.4. Ethnic Culture Specific Items…………………………..…………….207

4.2.4.1. Sample 1. Bagher Khan (1861-1916)……………………....207

4.2.4.2. Sample 2. Sattar Khan (1865-1915)………….……………..208

4.2.4.3.Sample3.Shaikh Mohammad Khiabani(1878-1910)………...208

4.2.4.4. Sample 4. Sayyid Mohammad Hussein Shahriyar (1905 - 1988)…...209

4.2.4.5.Sample 5.Prof.Mohsen Hashtroodi(1907-1977)…………….209

4.2.4.6. Sample 6. Parvin Etesami (1906-1941)…………………….210

4.2.4.7.Sample 7.Mirza Hassan Roshdieh(1865-1963)……………..210

4.2.4.8. Sample 8. Allameh Mohammad Taghi Jaffari……………...211

4.2.4.9. Sample 9. Jabbar Baghchebun (1885-1966)………………..211

4.2.4.10. Sample 10. Rassum Arabzadeh (1914-1986)………….…..212

4.2.4.11.Sample11.Abu Mozaffar Jahan Shah-e Garagoyunlu….......212

4.2.4.12. Sample 12. Sultan Mahmud Ghazan Khan………………..213

4.2.4.13. Sample 13. Kamal-iddin Masoud Khojandi………….……213

4.2.4.14. Sample 14. Kamal-iddin Behzad Harati…………………..213

4.2.4.15. Sample 15. Khasta Ghasim………………………………..214

4.2.4.16. Sample 16. Sheikh Mahmud Shabestari…………………..214

4.2.4.17. Sample 17. Ohadi Maragheie………….…………………..215

4.2.4.18. Sample 18. Mirza Mohammad Ali Ghuchani……………..215

4.2.4.19. Sample 19. Babak Khorramdin…………….……………...216

4.2.4.20. Sample 20. Abu-Al-Ghasem Nabati……………………....216

4.2.4.21. Sample 21. Segat-ol-Islam………………………………...217

4.2.4.22. Sultan Mahmud Mojalled…………………….…………....217

4.2.4.23.Sample23.Nizam-iddin Sultan Mohammad Naghash……...218

4.2.4.24. Sample 24. Mowlana Mashrabi Shervani………………....218

4.2.4.25. Sample 25. Samad Behrangi……………………………....218

4.2.5. Socio-Political Culture Specific Items………………………..……....219

4.3. Discussions……………………………………………………………………...220

Chapter Five: Conclusion………………..……………………………………….………….226

5.1. Overview………………………………………………………………………..226

5.2. Conclusions……………………………………………………………………..227

5.3. Suggestions for Further Studies………………………………………………...229

References………………………………………………………………………..………….232

List of Tables

Table 2.1.7.1. Nida's Defenitions of Good and Bad Translation……………………………..52

List of Figures

Figure 4.3.1. Eastern Azarbaijan Culture Specific Items Translation According to Domestication and Foreigniation……………………………………………………………220

Figure 4.3.2. Geographical Culture Specific Items in Eastern Azarbaijan Tourism Texts….221

Figure 4.3.3. Ethnographic Culture Specific Items in Eastern Azarbaijan Tourism Texts….222

Figure 4.3.4. Art and Cultural Culture Specific Items in Eastern Azarbaijan Tourism Texts………………………………………………………………………………………....223

Figure 4.3.5. Ethnic Culture Specific Items in Eastern Azarbaijan Tourism Texts…………224

Figure 4.3.6. All of the Eastern Azarbaijan Culture Specific Items According to Domestication and Foreignization…………………………………………………………..225

Chapter One: Introduction

1.1. Overview

First of all, in this section, the researcher tends to describe a little about the theory that is applied in this thesis to evaluate the translation of culture specific items in Eastern Azarbaijan Tourism Texts.

One of the key issues in the recent translation theories has been on whether the translator should remain invisible. The term invisibility describes the extent to which certain translation traditions tolerate the presence (i.e. intrusion, intervention) of the translator in the translation (Hatim,2001,45). This term originated in the works of Lawrence Venuti, himself a literary translator since the late 1970s. Venuti suggests that "invisibility" reveals itself in two related phenomena: The "effect of discourse", that is, the translator’s use of language; A "practice of reading" or the way translations are received and evaluated (Venuti,1995,1).

A translation from one literary language into another one normally involves three transfers: from one natural language into another one; from one time into another; from one cultural milieu into another one (Hochel,1991,41).

Those transfers can result in an invisible (domesticating) translation where the target text is perceived as if it was originally written in the target language, within the target culture and for the contemporary audience. They can also result in a Foreignizing translation, which makes it obvious to the reader that the original literary work belonged to a different language, age and culture.

Hatim defines domestication as "an approach to translation which, in order to combat some of the "alienating" effects of the foreign text, tends to promote a transparent, fluent style".

Foreignization is "a translation strategy which deliberately breaks target linguistic and cultural conventions by retaining some of the "foreignness" of the source text" (Hatim,2001,46).

The German philosopher and theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher formulated the distinction between the two strategies most emphatically. In his 1813 lecture on the different methods of translation Schleiermacher argued that "there are only two. Either the translator leaves the author in peace, as much as possible, and moves the reader towards him; or he leaves the reader in peace, as much as possible, and moves the author towards him." (Schleiermacher,1963). Thus every translator has to choose between a domesticating method and a foreignizing method. The first one is "an ethnocentric reduction of the foreign text to target-language cultural values, bringing the author back home", and the second one is "an ethnodeviant pressure on those values to register the linguistic and cultural difference of the foreign text, sending the reader abroad" (Ibid,20). Further on in this thesis I will show that most translations actually achieve a certain compromise, domesticating the text in some aspects and foreignizing it in others.

Venuti (1995) shows that Anglo-American literary history has been for a long time dominated by domesticating theories – that recommend fluent translating. As France (2000,9) points out, domestication ‘has long been, and still remains, an essential criterion for judging the success of a translation’. For many British readers the model of good writing was provided by such works as Fowler’s Modern English Usage or The King’s English. Those works declared their preference for the familiar over the far-fetched, the concrete over the abstract, the single word over the circumlocution, the short word over the long, Saxon word over the Romance. If one accepted a given stylistic doctrine as possessing general validity, then translations could be all judged by their conformity to conservative literary taste (Ibid,9).

Venuti (1995) defines domesticating translation as a replacement of the linguistic and cultural difference of the foreign text with a text that is intelligible to the target language reader. Foreignizing translation is defined as a translation that indicates the linguistic and cultural differences of the text by disrupting the cultural codes that prevail in the target language. Other scholars, like Tymoczko (1999), criticize this dichotomy by pointing out that a translation may be radically oriented to the source text in some respects, but depart radically from the source text in other respects, thus denying the existence of the single polarity that describes the orientation of a translation.

This thesis is going to explore the relationship between foreignization and domestication in translations of culture specific items in Eastern Azarbaijan Tourism Texts from Persian language into English language.

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