پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:A study on the effectiveness of bilingual Teaching of Cognate Words (Persian-English) on Iranian upper intermediate EFL learners’ knowledge of Lexical development

متن کامل پایان نامه مقطع کارشناسی ارشد رشته :زبان انگلیسی

عنوان : A study on the effectiveness of bilingual Teaching of Cognate Words (Persian-English) on Iranian upper intermediate EFL learners’ knowledge of Lexical development

Department of English Language

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of M.A. in Teaching English as a Foreign Language

Title:

A study on the effectiveness of bilingual Teaching of Cognate Words (Persian-English) on Iranian upper intermediate EFL learners’ knowledge of Lexical development

Supervisor

Dr. khodabandeloo

Advisor

Dr.jahandar

December 2014

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Table of Content

Title                                                                                                         Page

CHAPTER 1: Introduction

1.0. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………...…2

1.1TheoreticalFramework………………………………………………………………..……….3

1.2 Significance and purpose of thestudy…………………………………………………..….…5

1.3. Statement of theProblem…………………………………………………………………..…6

1.4. Research Question of thestudy…………………………………………………………….…6

1.5. Hypothesis of the study………………………………………………………………..……..7

1.6. Definitions of Key Terms………………………………………………………………….…7

1.7. Summary……………………………………………………………………………….……..7

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIW

2.0. Semantics…………………………………………………………………………….…….…9

2.1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………….…..….….24

2.2. Trends in lexicology………………………………………………………………..…..……28

2.3. Vocabulary knowledge in L2………………………………………………………………..33

2.4. Experiments on vocabulary issues……………………………………………………..….…39

2.5. Experiments on English cognate words………………………………………………….….42

2.6. Experiments on Iranian EFL learners' knowledge of English vocabulary………………..…47

2.7. Summary…………………………………………………………………………………..…52

CHAPTER3: METHODOLOGY

3.0. Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….……57

3.1. The design of the study………………………………………………………….………..…57

3.2. Participants………………………………………………………………………..……..….59

3.3. Materials………………………………………………………………………………….…60

3.4. Procedure………………………………………………………………………………...…60

3.5. Methods of Analyzing Data……………………………………………………………...…60

3.6. Summary……………………………………………………………………………..…...…61

CHAPTER4: RESULTS AND DATA ANALYSIS

4.0)Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………….…62

4.1) Descriptive Statistics……………………………………………………………….………..62

4.3) Inferential Statistics…………………………………………………………………..….…..64

  1. 4) Summary………………………………………………………………………………...….69

CHAPTER5: DISCUSSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

5.0. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….70

5.1. General Discussion………………………………………………………………………….70

5.2. Implications of the study………………………………………………………….……...….71

5.3. Limitations of the study…………………………………………………………….…….....71

5.4. Suggestions for further Research………………………………………………………...….72

REFRENCES …………………………………………………………..…………………..…..73

LIST OF APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………………….76

List of Tables

Title  Page

Table (4.1) .Descriptive statistics for the proficiency test………………….………………….....63

Table (4.2) . Number of students participated in pre-test and post-test case………………….….63

Table (4.3) .Descriptive statistics for the pre-test and post-test…………………………........….64

Table (4.4) Levine’s Test of Equality of Error Variances…………………………….…….........66

Table (4.5) Tests of Between-Subjects Effects ……………………………………………...…..66

Table (4.6) Mean and corrected Mean of lexical knowledge ……………………..……….….…67

Table (4.7) Sum of Analysis of covariance ………………………………………………...……68

List of Graphs

Title  Page

Graph (4.1) Lexical knowledge in control and experimental group from pre-test to post-test ………………………………………………………………………………………….….……...65

Graph (4.2) Means of post-test of experimental and control group………………...……69

Abstract

This study aimed at investigatingThe Effect of bilingual Teaching of Cognate Words (Persian-English) on Iranian upper intermediate EFL learners’ knowledge of Lexical development. For this purpose,100subjects participated in this studyout of which 40 learners were selected for this study and they were assigned into two groups, control and experimental.

Cross-language cognates (words with similar form and meaning in different languages) are of special interest for designing a model in TEFL, since they help teacher make the teaching of English vocabularies a joyful and lasting effect for Persian students. True cognates are the result of kinship relations across languages, or borrowings. False and true cognates might be found in nearly all languages with any kind of relation to other languages. There are still some "real" cognates found in the lexicon of Persian and English.

Then the datawas analyzed statistically through ANCOVA. The results of the study showed that the learners’ lexical knowledge was improved when they are presented with bilingual Teaching of Cognate Words (Persian-English).

The conclusions of this study will provide new insights into the linguistic and the communication problems derived from a misuse of these lexical items. The study of false friends and true Cognates has several implications for contrastive analysts, error analysts, translators, foreign language teachers and learners, curriculum designers, as well as lexicographers and lexicologists.

Key words: cognate word, EFL students, Lexical development

Chapter one

Introduction

1.0.Introduction

Cross-language cognates (words with similar form and meaning in different languages) are of special interest for designing a model of the bilingual lexicon because there is a possibility that they may have overlapping representations between the two languages of a bilingual. Among other effects related to cognates, the cognate facilitation effect was discovered: bilinguals produce and recognize cognates faster than non-cognates. One possibility to explain the cognate facilitation effect is through shared/overlapping representations of cognates and the word frequency effect. Since using a pair of cognates in two languages requires accessing (almost) the same phonological form in connection to (almost) the same concept, the overall frequency of a cognate increases.

Research in first-language reading has repeatedly documented a strong correlational relationshipbetween students' vocabulary knowledge and their ability to comprehend text (Anderson &Freebody, 1981).

Research in second-language reading has tended to focus more on morphology and syntax than onvocabulary (Weber, 1991).

One of the underlying assumptions in bilingual education is that students who are literate in their firstlanguage can transfer some of their knowledge and skills in first-language reading to second-languagereading (Grabe, 1988). There is some empirical evidence for this claim (Hudelson, 1981;Langer, Bartolom6, Vasquez, & Lucas, 1990). For example, we know that students' readingperformance in their first language tends to correlate with that in their second language (Tregar&Wong, 1984), and that proficient readers in both languages, as compared to less proficient readers, arebetter at using "meaning making" strategies in the two languages (Langer et al., 1990). However, we do not know much about the specific types of knowledge and strategies that transfer, nor do we knowthe conditions under which such transference might occur.

The purpose of our study was to examine the extent to which bilingual Persian students in the intermediate grades in Iran are able to transfer vocabulary knowledge in their first languageto reading in their second language through the use of cognates. Many words in English, especially inacademic and technical English, have close Iranian cognates. That is, Persian words with obviousorthographic similarity and closely related meaningsIn many cases, words in the two languages arealmost identical both in spelling and meaning (e.g., balcony, and buss, mother). Sometimes there are onlyminor, predictable changes in spelling (e.g., orange/نارنج, paradise/پردیس, and damp/دم).Because much of English academic vocabulary is derived from Latin, many words that are academic orrare words in English have cognates that are relatively common words in Persian. For example, the English word "parsang" is taken from the Latin word "Parsanga" which is the same as ancient Persian word "Fra-sanga" or "فرسنگ". If Persian bilingual students know the Persian words, and recognize the cognate relationships, their Persian knowledge should provide them with substantial help in English vocabulary, especially difficultreading vocabulary.

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