پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:The Effect of Three Semantic Mapping Strategies on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners in Kerman

متن کامل پایان نامه مقطع کارشناسی ارشد رشته :زبان انگلیسی

عنوان : پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:The Effect of Three Semantic Mapping Strategies on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners in Kerman

 

Islamic Azad University

Bandar-Abbas Branch

Department of Foreign Languages

The Effect of Three Semantic Mapping Strategies on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners in Kerman

Supervisor:

 Dr. Mohammad Shariati

Advisor:

 Dr. Masoud Sharififar

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Master of Arts in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (M.A)

May, 2011

برای رعایت حریم خصوصی نام نگارنده پایان نامه درج نمی شود(در فایل دانلودی نام نویسنده موجود است)تکه هایی از متن پایان نامه به عنوان نمونه :(ممکن است هنگام انتقال از فایل اصلی به داخل سایت بعضی متون به هم بریزد یا بعضی نمادها و اشکال درج نشود ولی در فایل دانلودی همه چیز مرتب و کامل است)Table of ContentsAcknowledgement………………………………………………………………………....….ITable of Contents ………………………………………….………………………….….…IIList of Tables……………………………………………………….…………..………...…VIList of Graphs…………………………………………………………………...…...…….VIIAbstract ………………………………………………………………….…………….…VIIICHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
  • Overview…………………………………………………………………………...….1
  • Rationale and Background…..……………………………………..…………...…….1
1-2-1. Foreign Language Learning Strategies..…………………………………………...11-2-2. Learning Strategies and Learning Skills………….….………….…………….…..21-2-3. Learning Strategies and Reading Comprehension…..…………………..…………31-2-3-1. Visual Reading vs. Reading Comprehension…………...…...……………51-2-4. Semantic Mapping and Reading Comprehension……….…………….… ……….61-2-4-1. The Effectiveness of Semantic Maps………..……………………………81-2-4-2. Problems of Implementation. ……………….………...…………..…….12
  • Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………..……..13
  • Purpose of Study…………………………………………………………….……….14
  • The Significance of the Study……………………………………………………..…15
  • Research Questions………………………………………………………………..…16
  • Research Hypotheses……………………………………….……………………..….16
  • Definition of Key Words……………………………………………………………..17
1-8-1. Semantic Map……………………………………………………………………171-8-1-1. Characteristics of Semantic Maps………….……………………………201-8-1-2. Constructing semantic Maps……………………..……...………………221-8-1-3. Steps of Semantic Mapping……………………………………………..241-8-1-4. Types of Semantic Mapping…………………………………………….241-8-2. Reading Comprehension……………………………………….……………….. 321-8-2-1. Decoding……………………………………...………..………….……..331-8-2-2. Vocabulary…………………………………..…………....……….……..341-8-2-3. World Knowledge………………………..…….…………………….…..341-8-2-4. Active Comprehension Strategies…………..……………………………35
  • Limitations of the Study…………………………………………..………………….36
CHAPTERTWO: REVIW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE2-1. Introduction………………………………………………..…………………………….372-2. Theories Relating to Semantic Maps………………………………………………...….372-3. Theoretical Section………………………………………………….……………….….392-4. Practical Section…………………………………………………………..…………..…42CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY3-1. Introduction……………………………………...………………………………………553-2. Participants………………………………………………...………………………….…553-3. Instrumentation………………………………………………...………………….…….563-4. Procedures…………………………………………………………...……………..……583-4-1. Procedures of Developing a Semantic Map……………………………………..583-4-2. Procedures of a Semantic Mapping Activity…..……………………….……….613-4-2-1. Introducing the Topic………………………..………………...……...….613-4-2-2. Brainstorming…………………………………….……………………....613-4-2-3. Categorization………………………………………...………………….623-4-2-4. Personalizing the Map……………………………………………………633-4-2-5. Post-assignment Synthesis……………….……..…………………….….633-4-3. Procedures of Reading Tests………………………….……………………….…643-5. Design………………………………………………………………………………...…66CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION4-1. Introduction………………………………………..………………………………….…674-2. Validity and Reliability of the Study………………………………………..…………..684-2-1. Validity of the Pre-test and Post-test……………………………..…….………...684-2-2. Validity of the Semantic Maps……………………………..…………….…..…..684-3. Reliability of the Tests…………………………………………….………………….…694-4. The Conditions of the Research Variables………………….…………………….……..704-4-1. Pre-test and Post-test Variable Scores in Experimental Group……..…..………..704-4-2. Pre-test and Post-test Variable Scores in Control Group………..….…..………...734-5. Consideration of Research Hypotheses……………………………….…………….…..754-5-1. First Hypothesis………………………………………...………………………...754-5-2. Second Hypothesis……………………………..………………………………...78CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION5-1. Introduction…………………………………...…………………………………………815-2. Summery……………………………...…………………………………………………815-3. Discussion of Findings………………………………………..……………………..…..825-4. Pedagogical Implications…………………………………………………………….….845-5. Suggestions for Further Study…………………………………………….……….……86References…………………………………………………………….……………………..88Appendixes………………………..………………………………..……………………..…96Appendix A: Reading Comprehension Test as Pre-test……………….…………………..…96Appendix B:  Reading Comprehension Test as Post-test………………………..….……….98Appendix C: Reading Comprehension Lesson 1 and the Related Semantic map..…………100Appendix D: Reading Comprehension Lesson 2 and the Related Semantic map………..…102Appendix E: Reading Comprehension Lesson 3 and the Related Semantic map…….…….104Appendix F: Reading Comprehension Lesson 4 and the Related Semantic map…….…….106Appendix G: Reading Comprehension Lesson 5 and the Related Semantic map……….….108Appendix H: Reading Comprehension Lesson 6 and the Related Semantic map…….…….110Appendix I: Reading Comprehension Lesson 7 and the Related Semantic map……….…..112Appendix J: Reading Comprehension Lesson 8 and the Related Semantic map………..….114 List of TablesTable 4.1: The correlation of test-retest…………………………………….…………….…69Table 4.2: Pre-test and post-test statistics in experimental group………………..………….71Table 4.3: Pre-test and post-test statistics in control group………...…………………….….73Table 4.4: T-test statistics for comparison between mean scores of experimental and control groups in post-test………………………………….…………………………………….…..76Table 4.5: The comparison between the pre-test and the post-test in experimental group…………………………….……………………………………………………………77Table 4.6: The post-test statistics for three subgroups: A, B and C………………….……...79       List of GraphsGraph 4.1: Pre-test descriptive statistics in experimental group…………………..………..72Graph 4.2: Post-test descriptive statistics in experimental group…………………………...72Graph 4.3: Pre-test descriptive statistics in control group…………………………………..74Graph 4.4: Post-test descriptive statistics in control group……………………...………….74Graph 4.5: The comparison of the post-test scores distributed in experimental and control group………………………………………………………………………………………….76Graph 4.6: Statistics of sub-groups A, B and C in the post-test……………………...……..80     AbstractThe purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of semantic mapping strategies on reading comprehension of learners in intermediate level and also to determine the most effective strategy type among: teacher-initiated, student-mediated and teacher-student interactive strategies. Some 60 female participants in high school participated in the study.Two valid reading comprehension tests were used in this study as pre-test and post-test. To investigate the effect of semantic mapping strategies a treatment after the pre-test and before the post-test was conducted in order to teach semantic mapping strategies to learners. To analyze the recorded data, Sample T-test was used. To determine the best strategy among the three considered kinds, factor analysis was conducted.The final analysis showed that using semantic mapping strategies before, during or after reading texts increased the comprehension of the learners and among the three kinds of semantic mapping strategies in this study; teacher-initiated, student-mediated and teacher-student interactive kind; the latter is the most effective one.Keywords: Semantic mapping strategies, Reading comprehension           CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 
  • Overview
The current study investigated the patterns of semantic mapping strategies in reading comprehension texts acquired by Iranian learners of intermediate level. It is essentially a study on the comprehension of texts by EFL learners in Kerman.The chapter discusses the place of the current study in the context of foreign language reading comprehension and semantic mapping research, the nature of semantic mapping strategies and the need to conduct a study of semantic mapping in reading comprehension within a foreign language learning context. Given the theoretical framework of the study, the main purposes and the significance of the study, two research questions are formulated. 
  • Rationale and Background
In this section, going from the general to detailed issues, the basic framework of the present study according to the current learning issues is regarded. 1.2.1 Foreign language learning strategies. Learning strategies are "techniques, approaches, or deliberate actions that students take in order to facilitate the learning and recall of both linguistic and content area information" (Wenden, 1987:6). Oxford (1990) considered that "any specific action taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, and more transferable to new situations" is a language learning strategy. Oxford (1990) divided strategies into two major types, direct and indirect. The indirect strategies are divided into metacognitive, affective, and social strategies. Metacogntive strategies, like advanced organizers, are "actions which go beyond purely cognitive devices, and which provide a way for learners to coordinate their own learning process" (p. 136).Cohen (1998:8) expressed the following:Since strategies themselves have sometimes been referred to as 'good', 'effective', or 'successful' and the converse, it needs to be pointed out that with some exceptions, strategies themselves are not inherently good or bad, but have the potential to be used effectively whether by the same learner from one instance within one task to another instance within that same task, from one task to another, or by different learners dealing with the same task. Perhaps if enough learners in a given group successfully use a given strategy in a given task, then claims could be made for the effectiveness of that strategy in that instance for that group. Otherwise, it is safest to refer to what often amounts to panoply of potentially useful strategies for any given task.Furthermore, various researchers suggested (Ellis, 1994) that one trait of good language learners is that they are able to cater their foreign language learning strategy use to their proficiency level demands.تعداد صفحه : 127قیمت : 14000تومان

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