پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:The impact of silent and freeze-frame viewing techniques of video materials on the intermediate EFL learners` listening comprehension

متن کامل پایان نامه مقطع کارشناسی ارشد رشته :زبان انگلیسی:

عنوان : The impact of silent and freeze-frame viewing techniques of video materials on the intermediate EFL learners` listening comprehension

Islamic Azad University

Rasht Branch

 

Faculty of Human Science

Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for (M.A) degree

 

Title

The impact of silent and freeze-frame viewing techniques of video materials on the intermediate EFL learners` listening comprehension

 

Supervisor:

Dr. Abdorreza Tahriri

Date:

January 2014

برای رعایت حریم خصوصی نام نگارنده پایان نامه درج نمی شود(در فایل دانلودی نام نویسنده موجود است)تکه هایی از متن پایان نامه به عنوان نمونه :(ممکن است هنگام انتقال از فایل اصلی به داخل سایت بعضی متون به هم بریزد یا بعضی نمادها و اشکال درج نشود ولی در فایل دانلودی همه چیز مرتب و کامل است)

Table of contents

Abstract............................................................................................................................1

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.0 Preliminaries……………………………………………………...………………...2

1.1 Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………………….5

1.2 Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………………..7

1.3 Significance of the Study………………………………………………………….10

1.4 Purpose of the Study………………………………………………………............11

1.5 Research Questions of the Study………………………………………………….11

1.6 Hypothesis of the Study……………………………………………………...…...12

1.7 Definition of Key Terms………………………………………………………….12

1.7.1 Listening Skill……………………………………………………...........12

1.7.2 Listening comprehension………………………………………………..12

1.7.3 Video material…………………………………………………………...13

1.7.4 Silent viewing……………………………………………………............13

1.7.5 Freeze-frame viewing…………………………………………...……….13

1.8 Outline of the Study……………………………………………………………….14

1.9 Summary…………………………………………………………………………..14

Chapter 2: Review of the Literature

2.0 Preliminaries……………………………………………………...………….........15

2.1 Significance of the Listening Skill……………………………………………......15

2.2 The Listening Process……………………………………………………….........17

2.2.1 Top-down Processing……………………………………………………17

2.2.2 Bottom-up Processing…………………………………………………...18

2.3 Components of the Listening Skill……………………………………………......20

2.4 Types of the Listening Skill………………………………………………………21

2.5 A Historical Overview of the Listening Instruction……………………………...24

2.6 Teaching Listening………………………………………………………….........28

2.7 Areas of Research in the Listening Comprehension…………………………......31

2.8 Video Material……………………………………………………………………33

2.8.1 Dual Coding Theory (DCT)……………………………………………..35

2.8.2 Authenticity……………………………………………………………...37

2.8.3 Studies on Using Video Material in Language Classes…………………38

2.8.4 Studies on Using Captions and Subtitles…………………………...........47

2.8.5 Studies on Using Advance Organizers…………………………..............54

2.9 Summary………………………………………………………………......……...59

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.0 Preliminaries…………………………………………………..………………….60

3.1 The Design of the Study………………………………………………………….60

3.2 Participants……………………………………………………………………….61

3.3 Instruments and Materials…………………………………………………..........62

3.3.1 Oxford Placement Test………………………………………….………62

3.3.2 IELTS Listening Test………………………………………..………….63

3.3.3 Close-ended Questionnaire………………………………….………….63

3.3.4 Video Material…………………………………………………..………63

3.3.5 Pilot Study………………………………………………………………64

3.4 Data Collection Procedure………………………………………………..………65

3.5 Methods of Analyzing Data……………………………………………………....66

3.6 Summary………………………………………………………………..………...67

Chapter 4: Result

4.0 Preliminaries…………………………………………………………….…….…..68

4.1 Data Analysis and Findings…………………………………………….………...69

4.1.1 Pilot Study……………………………………………………..………...69

4.1.2 General Placement Test (OPT)………………………………..…………70

4.1.3 Testing the Normality Assumption…………………………....………...71

4.1.4 The First Research Question……………………………….……………73

4.1.5 Descriptive Statistics for the Pre-Test Scores of Listening Comprehension……………………………………………………………………….74

4.1.6 Descriptive Statistics for the Post-Test Scores of Listening Comprehension…………………………………………………………..……….…...76

4.1.7 The Second Research Question……………………….…………………78

4.1.8 The Third Research Question……………………………………………78

4.1.9 The Fourth Research Question……………….………………………….79

4.2 Summary………………………………………………………………..................83

Chapter 5: Discussion

5.0 Preliminaries……………………………………………...……………………….85

5.1 General Discussion……………………………………….…………….................85

5.2 Implications of the Study………………………………….………………………90

5.3 Limitations of the Study…………………………………………….…………….91

5.4 Suggestions for further Research…………………………………………………92

5.5 Summary………………………………………………………………………….92

References………………………………………………………………....…………93

Appendices………………………………………………………………………….102

Appendix A: Oxford Placement Test……………………………………...…102

Appendix B: IELTS Listening Tests…………………………………………110

Appendix C: Close-ended Questionnaire………………….…………………118

 

List of Tables

Title                                                                                                                           Page

Table 2.1 Years of Training in Different Skills………………………………….……17

Table 3.1 Information about the Participants` age……………………………………61

Table 4.1 Correlations between First and Second Administration of Listening Test……………………………………………………………………………………70

Table 4.2 Reliability Statistics…………………………………………………….…..70

Table 4.3 Statistics for OPT Test Scores……………………………………………...71

Table 4.4 Statistics for the Skewness Analysis……………………………………….72

Table 4.5 Descriptive Statistics for Pre-test Scores of Listening Comprehension Test………………………………………………………………………………........74

Table 4.6 One - Way ANOVA for the Three Groups on Pre-Test……………...….…75

Table 4.7 Descriptive Statistics for the Results of the Post–Test………………....…..76

Table 4.8 One- Way ANOVA for the Three Groups on Post-Test……………....…...77

Table 4.9 Multiple Comparisons (Scheffe test) for Three Groups on Post-Test….......78

Table 4.10 Item Statistics for the Attitude Questionnaire…………………………….80

List of Figures

Figure 4.1 Scatter plot for the two experimental and control group for pre-test scores………………………………………………………………………………….73

Figure 4.2 Scatter plot for the two experimental and control group for post-test scores………………………………………………………………………………….73

Figure 4.3 The comparison of the three groups on pre-test…………………………..75

Figure 4.4 The comparison of the three groups on post- test………………………...79

Abstract

The present study investigated the impact of silent and freeze-frame viewing techniques of video materials on the intermediate EFL learners` listening comprehension. In addition, it aimed at investigating the learners` attitudes towards these two viewing techniques. To these ends, 45 intermediate EFL learners were randomly assigned into one control and two experimental groups who received the treatment of viewing techniques in silent and freeze-frame separately. The participants were selected based on Oxford Placement Test from among 150 EFL learners. The two experimental groups received their treatment for ten sessions while for the control group the visual material was presented in written form. Before the treatment, all three groups received a pre-test based on IELTS listening which was administered to make sure there were not any significant differences among the groups in terms of their listening comprehension. After ten sessions of treatment, a post-test based on IELTS listening test, identical to the pre-test, was given. The results of One-Way ANOVA revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental groups and the control group. While the difference between the two experimental groups was not significant, the experimental groups outperformed the control group significantly. A closed questionnaire was also administered to explore the participants’ attitudes and the results revealed that the participants of the experimental groups had positive attitudes towards using specific viewing techniques of video materials.

Key terms: Listening comprehension, viewing techniques, silent viewing, freeze-frame viewing, video material, EFL.

 

Chapter One

Introduction

1.0 Preliminaries

Learning a second/foreign language is of utmost importance for the learners and being able to communicate with the native speakers is the ultimate goal of it. To be able to communicate means to express thoughts, feelings and information effectively through the four skills, i.e., writing, reading, speaking, and listening. Although speaking is commonly equated with communication but according to Rivers (1981, p. 196) “speaking does not of itself constitute communication unless what is being said is comprehended by another person”. In fact, other skills are also important in communication.

Listening is a basic skill in first and second language acquisition and it is also important and crucial in learning English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL). In a language classroom, listening ability plays an important role in the development of other language skills; however, according to Chastain (1988),"both language teachers and students tend to overlook the importance of listening comprehension skills. They do so because their attention is fixed so completely on their ultimate goal, speaking, that they fail to recognize the need for developing speaking skills" (p.192). Chastain explains further that as the listening comprehension process is internal, it is not subject to direct external observation, examination, and correction. Therefore, language teachers and students tend to overlook its prerequisite importance in language learning because there is no immediate observable output. It is argued that "for many years, listening skills did not receive priority in language teaching and teaching methods emphasized productive skills. This position has been replaced by an active interest in the role of listening comprehension in SLA by the development of powerful theories …" (Richards & Renandya, 2002, p. 235). Nunan (2002, p. 238) also states, "Listening is the Cinderella skill in second language learning. All too often, it has been overlooked by its elder sister- speaking".

In the 1980s, Krashen and Asher proposed the idea of comprehensible input for the first time; Nunan (2002, p. 238) stated that "their idea was based on the belief that a second language is learned most effectively in the early stages if the pressure for production is taken off the learners". Therefore, if the learners feel relaxed and they do not feel pressure for production, they will listen more effectively. Nunan (2002) also mentions that "by emphasizing the role of comprehensible input, second language acquisition research has given a major boost to listening" (p. 238). Rost (1994) pointed out that "listening is vital in the language classroom because it provides input for the learner. Without understanding input at the right level, any learning simply cannot begin. Listening is thus fundamental to speaking" (cited in Nunan, 2002, p. 239).Therefore, language teachers should provide comprehensible input for the learners in the language classroom.

Since video materials can be used to serve the purpose of providing comprehensible input, they should be included in language learning programs. Videos can be considered to have the characteristics of comprehensible input based on Krashen’s idea of comprehensible input. According to Krashen (2009, p. 21), we understand language not by only using linguistic competence but we can understand language by using our knowledge of the world and our extra-linguistic information. When learners watch videos, they can comprehend the message using their background knowledge and also they can use extra-linguistic factors existing in movies.

According to Potosi et al. (2009, p. 7), “Video materials can be a learning alternative because they contain dialogues from highly proficient English speakers, which could contribute to an easier understanding of their pronunciation”. Yang, Huang, Tsai, Chung and Wu (2009) stated that "using videos or films as a learning resource has received a great deal of attention from researchers and has been successfully applied to various educational applications" (cited in Hsu, Hwang, Chang, & Chang, 2013, p. 404).Videos can also provide the learners with authentic material that can facilitate learning. Herron (1994, p. 190) pointed out that "the theorists stress the importance to foreign language acquisition of providing the language learner with contextualized and meaningful input". He also mentions that "video has the advantages of permitting students to witness authentic linguistic and cultural interactions between native speakers, and it is a medium with which students are very familiar" (p. 190). Video can provide the students with not only contextualized input but also with authentic materials. In addition, Herron (1994) states that "video has the advantages of permitting students to witness authentic linguistic and cultural interactions between native speakers, and it is a medium with which students are very familiar" (p. 190).

Listening as a crucial skill in learning a second language can be best practiced by using videos. Learners of English in Iran have numerous problems in listening skill and according to Bozorgian and Pillay (2013, p. 106) learners think their listening comprehension problems contribute to their insufficient competence or to “the linguistic difficulty of stimulus text”. Bozorgian and Pillay (2013) also argued that in Iran’s English institutions, “the process of the skill of listening is not emphasized despite a wide access to listening materials with accompanying audiovisual technology in the classroom such as CDs, DVD or video” (p. 106).

Video is a valuable tool but it is not usually used in the classroom. The teachers simply put a video at the end of the term and let the students watch a movie without making them involved actively in the task. Because video as a learning tool according to Mckinnon (n. d.) can help and improve the listening experience of the students, it should be practiced in the classroom. Mckinnon (n.d.) believes that by using video in the classroom, “we can add a whole new dimension to aural practice” (Para. 2).He further adds that “the setting, action, emotions, gestures, etc., that our students can observe in a video clip, provide an important visual stimulus for language production and practice” (Para. 2).Mckinnon points out that there are many ways to implement video in the classroom like split viewing, vision on/ sound off, observe and write, video dictogloss, watch and observe and many others. The teacher can choose any of them and practice watching videos in the classroom and let the students practice their listening skill in a more challenging way.

The present study is an investigation of the impact of silent and freeze-frame viewing techniques of video materials on the intermediate EFL learners’ listening comprehension in addition to exploring the attitudes of the participants toward these viewing techniques to see how effective they will be for Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension ability. In other words, this study seeks to see whether different techniques of video viewing have any impact on the listening comprehension of the learners or not.

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