پایان نامه رشته زبان انگلیسی:The Role of CALL in Facilitating the Reading Ability of EFL Learners

متن کامل پایان نامه مقطع کارشناسی ارشد رشته :زبان انگلیس

عنوان : The Role of CALL in Facilitating the Reading Ability of EFL Learners


Ministry of Science, Research and Technology      

Allameh Mohaddes Nouri University

 (Non-Governmental, Non-Profit)

Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences

English Department

 

The Role of CALL in Facilitating the Reading Ability of EFL Learners

 

Supervisor:

Dr. Karim Shabani

Advisor:

Dr. Amir Marzban

THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR  THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

ALLAMEH MOHADDES NOURI UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES

 

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

NOUR, IRAN

NOVEMBER, 2014

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ABSTRACT

The present study was carried out to determine the role of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in facilitating the reading ability of EFL learners. It was hypothesized that CALL wouldn’t have significant impact on reading comprehension. The participants in this study were 60 students selected randomly from the EFL learners from an English language institute. The participants were the Iranian male and female intermediate EFL learners with the range of 18 to 22 years of age. They shared the same linguistic and cultural background and their first language in the research was Persian. The participants completed pre-intermediate level and passed the placement test at the intermediate level. Quantitative method and true experimental design was used to explore the effects of CALL on the participants’ reading  ability compared to traditional method of teaching reading. The tools for collecting quantitative data in this study included a pre-test and a post-test. All the participants were randomly assigned to a control and an experimental group. The experimental group studied with a CALL program through doing some exercises. The control group went through a traditional method of teaching reading in a classroom. The results showed that using computer in the class had a positive impact on reading ability of EFL learners. The result of this study can be considered a contribution in the latest way of teaching reading to the speakers of the other language and also the results of current study may be beneficial to teachers of foreign languages (particularly Iranian teachers) in that they can benefit from innovative ways of teaching reading by CALL program and helping the learners to understand the reading text better.

Keywords:

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), Reading, EFL context.

Table of Contents

Title                                                                                                 Page

       Abstract 6

       List of Tables. 9

       List of Abbreviations and Transcription Conventions. 10

Introduction. 11

       0.1.Introduction. 12

       0.2. Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………………..15       

       0.3. Significance of the Study………………………………………………………16

       0.4. Statement of the paroblem…………………………………………………….17

       0.5. Research Questions……………………………………………………………19

       0.6. Research Null Hypothesis …………………………………………………….19

       0.7. Definition of Key Terms ………………………………………….…………..19

       0.8. Limitations and de-limitations….. …………………………………………….20

       0.9.Outline of the Study……………………………………………………….……20

Chapter 1: Review of the Related Literature. 22

      1.1. Introduction 23

      1.2. Reading and Importance of Reading……………………………………………23

      1.3. Reading Purposes….……………..………………………………………………27   

      1.4. Types of Reading………………………………………………………………28      

             1.4.1. Extensive reading………………………………………………………..28

             1.4.2. Intensive reading………………………………………………………….28      

      1.5. Reading Comprehension……………………………………………………….29

      1.6. Reading Comprehension Skills…………………………………………………31      

             1.6.1. Skimming…………………………………………………………………………………….31

             1.6.2.Scanning………………………………………………………………….32      

             1.6.3. Identifying the Topic……………………………………………………..32    

             1.6.4. Prediction…………………………………………….…………………….33    

             1.6.5. Inferring…………………………………………………………………..33

             1.6.6. Asking and Answering Questions………………………………………..33

             1.6.7. Note-taking……………………………………………………………….34

             1.6.8. Sequencing ………………………………………………………………34

             1.6.9. Knowing the meaning of words through context …………………………..….34

             1.6.10. Visualizing………………………………………………………………34

             1.6.11. Summarizing Text………………………………………………………35

             1.6.12. Knowing the meaning of words through context……………………….35

             1.6.13. Distinguishing facts from opinion ………………………………………36

  1. 7. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) ………………………………36

      1.8. The History of CALL……………………………………………………………36

             1.8.1.Behavioristic CALL………………………………………………………37

             1.8.2. Communicative CALL………………………………………..………….38

             1.8.3. Interactive CALL………………..……………………………………….38

      1.9. Advantages of CALL……………………………………………………………38

      1.10. Disadvantages of CALL…………………………………………………..…40

      1.11. CALL and Reading Skills……………………………………………………42

      1.12. Using Computers in a Reading Class…………………………………………43

      1.13. CALL Methodology……………………………………………………….…45

      1.14. Previous Studies on CALL……………………………………………………46

      1.15. Summary…………………………………………………..………….……….55        

Chapter 2: Methodology. 56

      2.1. Introduction. 57

      2.2. Participant………………………………………………………………………57

      2.3. Design……………………………………………………………………………57

      2.4. Procedure……………………………………………………………………….59

      2.5. Instrumentation…………………………………………………………………59

             2.5.1. The Placement Test………………….,………………………………….59

             2.5.2. Pre-test………………………………………………….………………..59

             2.5.3. Post-test…………………………………………………………………..60

      2.6. Data collection and analysis…………………………………………….………60

      2.7. Summary …………………………………………………………………..…. 60

Chapter 3: Results. 62

      3.1. Introduction. 63

      3.2. Data analysis and Findings……………………………………………………..63  

             3.2.1. Analysis of Pre test………………………………………………………63

             3.2.2. Analysis of Post test…………………………………………………….64

                       3.2.2.1 Reliability of the test…………………………………………….64

      3.3 Summary………………………………………………….……………….…….67

Chapter 4: Discussion, Conclusion, Implications and Suggestions. 68

      4.1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………….69

      4.2. Discussion………………………………………………………….…………..69

      4.3. Conclusions……………………………………………………………….……70

      4.4. Implications…………………………………………………………………….70

            4.4.1. Pedagogical Implications…………………………………………………70

            4.4.2. Theoretical Implication…………………………………………………..71

      4.5. limitations………………………………………………………………………71

      4.6. Recommendations for Further Studies………………………………………….73

      4.7. Summary………………………………………………………………………..73

APPENDICES. 74

REFERENCES………..………………………………………………………………102

List of Tables

     3.1 Independent Sample t-test Analysis of Pre-test…………………………………..64       

     3.2 Reliability of the posttest by using Split half……………………………………..64

     3.3 Paired Sample t-test Analysis of Pretest and Posttest…………………………….65

     3.4 Independent Sample t-test Analysis of post-test…………………………………..65

List of Abbreviations and Transcription Conventions

SPSS = Statistical Package for Social Science

EFL = English as a Foreign Language

CALL = Computer-Assisted-Language-Learning

ICT =Information and Communication Technology

Introduction

0.1 Introduction

The spread of computers in educational contexts changed the realm of language teaching so dramatically that it seems necessary to language teachers to think about the implication of computers for language learning (Warschauer, 1996).

As Hardisty and Windeat (1989) state, Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) aims to describe the use of computers as part of a language course. During the last decade, Studies have illustrated how computer technologies support meaningful and comprehensive educational experiences. Although many organizational and educational settings still privilege the notion of face-to-face classroom instruction, there is nowadays a steady rush and enthusiasm for computer-oriented learning. The global popularity of the computer over the past decade has brought about the innovative uses of computers in educational and foreign language teaching and learning (Belz & kinginger, 2003); with the advance of the technology, more interactive uses of CALL and the increase in the integration of various evolved (Pusack & Lotto, 1990).

CALL is a relatively new academic field that includes highly interactive and communicative support for different language skills including extensive use of the internet. It is a new issue in both computer and linguistic science which offers good promises to teachers, material developers, linguists, and computer researchers. Hence, there are various peripheral applications for computers in the educational domain. In the EFL settings, CALL programs can improve the learning speed, individualized instruction, administration, and efficiency the notion of using computers in foreign language learning and teaching was brought about by the rapid advent of overwhelming computation (Chambers & Davies, 2001). Therefore, language instructors had to adapt their teaching methods to the new ways of FL instruction using computers. The computer focuses on the user’s progress, the possible mistakes, and problems and leads the learner to adapt its pace to the learner’s and learning results she/he has achieved.

As it is known, English has four main skills namely: Listening, Reading, Speaking and writing. The main goal of teaching these skills is to enable students to interact successfully with native and non-native users of English in a variety of social and academic settings.

Reading is considered as the most important skill. Reading is an essential skill for students which enable them to acquire knowledge and develop their academic areas. The essential aim of teaching reading is to train students to read efficiently and quickly in order to get information and meaning from the written material with full understanding and enjoyment.

Reading is one of the crucial language skills for EFL language learners, for academic success, and for professional development. It is widely known that learners learning style and pace of learning can vary significantly even if they belong to the same language learning groups. Even, during the classes dealing with reading comprehension, learners cannot develop their skills as they have to wait for their classmates to complete the assigned task to all learners. The application of computers help students work at their own pace through which teachers can assess the needs and problems of ability to select the type of reading comprehension test based on their preferences, CALL activities are also more interesting, challenging, and motivating which improve the learners’ participation and attention.

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شماره کارت :  6037997263131360 بانک ملی به نام محمد علی رودسرابی

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